FALSE2023FY00018427311P1YP2Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#InterestIncomeExpenseNonoperatingNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#InterestIncomeExpenseNonoperatingNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#InterestIncomeExpenseNonoperatingNet00018427312023-01-012023-12-310001842731dei:BusinessContactMember2023-01-012023-12-3100018427312023-12-31xbrli:shares00018427312023-10-012023-12-3100018427312022-12-31iso4217:USDiso4217:ILSxbrli:shares00018427312021-01-012021-12-3100018427312022-01-012022-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares00018427312020-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-3100018427312021-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731smwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2021-05-112021-05-110001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2021-05-110001842731us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:OverAllotmentOptionMember2021-05-112021-05-110001842731us-gaap:IPOMember2021-05-112021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA1Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA2Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA3Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA4Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA5Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA6Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA7Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA8Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA9Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesA10Member2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesBMember2021-05-110001842731smwb:ConvertiblePreferredSharesCMember2021-05-11smwb:segmentsmwb:reportingUnit0001842731us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:BrandNameMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:DatabasesMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:UserPanelMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310001842731srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:ComputerEquipmentSoftwarePeripheralAndElectronicEquipmentMember2023-01-012023-12-31xbrli:pure0001842731us-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2023-12-3100018427312024-01-012023-12-3100018427312025-01-012023-12-310001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMember2021-11-012021-11-300001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMember2021-11-300001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-11-012021-11-300001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-11-012021-11-300001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMemberus-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMember2021-11-300001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMembersmwb:UserPanelMember2021-11-300001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMemberus-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMembersmwb:UserPanelMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731smwb:SimilarTechLtdMember2021-04-012021-04-300001842731smwb:SimilarTechLtdMember2021-04-300001842731smwb:SimilarTechLtdMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-04-300001842731smwb:SimilarTechLtdMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-04-300001842731smwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-012022-05-310001842731smwb:CEORetentionMembersmwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-310001842731smwb:CEORetentionMembersmwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731smwb:FutureRevenueMilestonesMembersmwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-310001842731smwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-310001842731us-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMembersmwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-310001842731us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMembersmwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-310001842731smwb:BrandNameMembersmwb:InternetMarketingCenterLtdMember2022-05-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:ElectronicEquipmentMember2022-12-310001842731smwb:ElectronicEquipmentMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:LeaseholdImprovementsFurnitureAndFixturesAndEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731smwb:LeaseholdImprovementsFurnitureAndFixturesAndEquipmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:TechnologyBasedIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:DatabasesMember2022-12-310001842731smwb:UserPanelMember2022-12-310001842731smwb:BrandNameMember2022-12-310001842731smwb:SVBCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-12-310001842731us-gaap:PrimeRateMembersmwb:SVBCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-01-012020-12-310001842731smwb:SVBCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-01-012020-12-310001842731smwb:SVBCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-12-310001842731smwb:SVBCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731smwb:Plan2010AndPlan2012Member2012-12-310001842731smwb:Plan2021Member2021-04-300001842731smwb:Plan2021Member2021-04-012021-04-300001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731srt:MinimumMember2021-12-310001842731srt:MaximumMember2021-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:PlanESPPMember2021-04-300001842731smwb:PlanESPPMember2021-04-012021-04-30utr:H0001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:IsraelTaxAuthorityMember2023-12-310001842731smwb:EmbeeMobileIncMember2023-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731smwb:SaasServiceAgreementMembersrt:AffiliatedEntityMember2014-02-012014-02-280001842731smwb:SaasServiceAgreementMembersrt:AffiliatedEntityMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731smwb:SaasServiceAgreementMembersrt:AffiliatedEntityMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731smwb:SaasServiceAgreementMembersrt:AffiliatedEntityMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731smwb:RelatedPartyInvesteeMember2021-03-310001842731srt:AffiliatedEntityMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731country:US2021-01-012021-12-310001842731country:US2022-01-012022-12-310001842731country:US2023-01-012023-12-310001842731srt:EuropeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731srt:EuropeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731srt:EuropeMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731srt:AsiaPacificMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731srt:AsiaPacificMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731srt:AsiaPacificMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731country:GB2021-01-012021-12-310001842731country:GB2022-01-012022-12-310001842731country:GB2023-01-012023-12-310001842731country:IL2021-01-012021-12-310001842731country:IL2022-01-012022-12-310001842731country:IL2023-01-012023-12-310001842731smwb:OtherGeographicRegionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001842731smwb:OtherGeographicRegionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001842731smwb:OtherGeographicRegionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001842731country:IL2022-12-310001842731country:IL2023-12-310001842731smwb:OtherGeographicRegionMember2022-12-310001842731smwb:OtherGeographicRegionMember2023-12-31

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F
(Mark One)  REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR SECTION 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934  
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from      to
OR
 SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission file number 001-40394
Similarweb Ltd.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
State of Israel
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

33 Yitzhak Rabin Rd.
Givatayim 5348303, Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
Or Offer
Chief Executive Officer
Telephone: +972-3-544-7782
Similarweb Ltd.
33 Yitzhak Rabin Rd.
Givatayim 5348303, Israel
Email: ir@similarweb.com
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)


1


 
Securities registered or to be registered, pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, par value 0.01 NISSMWB
The New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital stock or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. 78,650,878 ordinary shares
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☐ No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes No
Note—Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
☐ Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
☐ Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
2


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP
 International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
Item 17 Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes ☐ No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.Yes ☐ No ☐

CONTENTS
3


4





















5


ABOUT THIS ANNUAL REPORT
Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated in this Annual Report on Form 20-F (“Annual Report”), the terms “Similarweb,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” and “our business” refer to Similarweb Ltd. and its subsidiaries.
All references in this Annual Report to “Israeli currency” and “NIS” refer to New Israeli Shekels, the terms “dollar,” “USD” or “$” refer to U.S. dollars and the terms “€” or “euro” refer to the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of European economic and monetary union pursuant to the treaty establishing the European Community, as amended.

No material on our website forms any part of this Annual Report. References in this Annual Report to documents on our website are included as an aid to the location of such documents and such documents are not incorporated by reference.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). We present our consolidated financial statements in U.S. dollars.
Our fiscal year ends on December 31 of each year. References to fiscal 2021 and 2021 are references to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. References to fiscal 2022 and 2022 are references to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. References to fiscal 2023 and 2023 are references to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023. Some amounts in this Annual Report may not total due to rounding. All percentages have been calculated using unrounded amounts.
Throughout this Annual Report, we provide a number of key performance indicators used by our management and often used by competitors in our industry. These and other key performance indicators are discussed in more detail in Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsKey Financial and Operating Metrics.
Market and Industry Data
This Annual Report contains statistical data, estimates and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications or other publicly available information, as well as other information based on our internal sources. While we believe the industry and market data included in this Annual Report are reliable and are based on reasonable assumptions, this data involves many assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and other publicly available information. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the sections titled “Risk factors” and “Special note regarding forward-looking statements.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the projections and estimates made by the independent third parties and us.






6


The sources of certain statistical data, estimates and forecasts contained in this Annual Report are the following independent industry publications or reports:

ReportLinker: Business Intelligence Market by Component, Solution, Business Function, Industry Vertical And Region - Global Forecast to 2025, published in September 2020
Statista: Market research industry - statistics & facts, published July 2022
Cision PRNews: At CAGR of 13.9% Global Marketing Analytics Software Market | 2021 - 2028 | Deployment, Application, End-User | Rapid Growth up to USD 6.74 Billion: Industry Size, Trends, Forecast Report by Zion Market Research, published March 2022
FutureMarketInsights: Digital Marketing Analytics Market Outlook - 2021-2031, published June 2022
ResearchandMarkets: Marketing Research and Analysis Services Global Market Opportunities and Strategies to 2031, published January 2023
Unless otherwise noted, in this Annual Report we cite a source the first time a statement relying upon that source is made, and do not include citations subsequently when that statement is repeated.

Trademarks
“Similarweb”, the Similarweb logo and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are the property of Similarweb Ltd. or our subsidiaries. We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this Annual Report that are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable intellectual property laws. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report may appear without the “®” or “™” symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent possible under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names.


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report contains estimates and forward-looking statements within the meaning of section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that are based on management’s expectations, beliefs or intentions regarding, among other things, our product development efforts, business, financial condition, results of operations, strategies, plans and prospects. In addition, from time to time, we or our representatives have made or may make forward-looking statements, orally or in writing. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “contemplate,” “possible” or similar words. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, growth strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, including, among others, expansion in new and existing markets, are forward-looking statements.
Our estimates and forward-looking statements are mainly based on our current expectations and estimates of future events and trends which affect or may affect our business, operations and industry. Although we believe that these estimates and forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, they are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties, other factors and assumptions, including the risks described in Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report, regarding, among other things:
our expectations regarding our revenue, expenses and other operating results;
our ability to acquire new customers and successfully retain existing customers;
our ability to increase usage of our solutions and upsell and cross-sell additional solutions;
our ability to achieve or sustain profitability;
7


anticipated trends, growth rates, rising interest rates, rising global inflation and current macroeconomic conditions, challenges in our business and in the markets in which we operate, and the impact of Israel's war with Hamas and other terrorist organizations on geopolitical and macroeconomic conditions or on our company and business;
future investments in our business, our anticipated capital expenditures and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
the costs and success of our sales and marketing efforts and our ability to promote our brand;
our reliance on key personnel and our ability to identify, recruit and retain skilled personnel;
our ability to effectively manage our growth, including continued international expansion;
our reliance on certain third party platforms and sources for the collection of data necessary for our solutions;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and any costs associated therewith;
our ability to identify and complete acquisitions that complement and expand our reach and platform;
our ability to comply or remain in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business, including in Israel, the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions where we elect to do business;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and
the growth rates of the markets in which we compete.

You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in Item 3.D “Key information - Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report and the additional information contained in “ITEM 4 Information on the Company” and “ITEM 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report. While we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments.







8


Summary of Risk Factors:

The following constitutes a summary of the material risks relevant to an investment in our Company:

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
We may be unable to execute our business plan or maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction.
We may not be able to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability. Quarterly fluctuations in our operating results make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
We may be unable to attract new customers, expand subscriptions of current customers, compete effectively or introduce new features or solutions successfully.
Competing products and services could surpass ours in depth, breadth or accuracy of our insights or in other respects.
Real or perceived errors, failures, vulnerabilities or bugs in our platform could result in a decline in the accuracy of the intelligence we produce and/or cause other problems and harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Our data or proprietary information, our platform or our solutions may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform and solutions may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.
We could experience reduced demand for our solutions and a deterioration in the depth, breadth or accuracy of our data and may no longer be able to continue to obtain reliable data from our suppliers.
Our business may be harmed if we change our methodologies or the scope of information that we collect.
Our ability to expand the number of organizations using our solutions may be impaired, our marketing strategies may fail to lead to users purchasing paid subscriptions and our ability to grow our revenue may be adversely affected.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks and costs and failure to develop and expand our direct sales capabilities effectively could harm our ability to increase the number of organizations using our platform and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions.
We have limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for our solutions.
If we fail to offer a high-quality customer experience, our business and reputation will suffer.
Our business could be negatively affected by changes in search engine algorithms.
Our financial results may fluctuate due to increasing variability in our sales cycles.
Because we recognize subscription revenue over the subscription term, downturns or upturns in new sales and renewals or changes to pricing are not immediately reflected in full in our results of operations.
Future acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships, or alliances could be difficult to identify and integrate, divert the attention of key management personnel, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and harm our results of operations and financial condition.
We could lose the innovative approach, creativity and teamwork, and we may fail to retain and motivate members of our management team or other key employees, or attract, recruit, retain and develop qualified employees.
We have a credit facility secured by substantially all of our assets under which we have borrowed and may in the future borrow additional amounts; any indebtedness thereunder could adversely affect our financial position and our ability to raise additional capital and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the credit facility. Failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.
9


Risks Relating to Our Intellectual Property and Technology
We may fail to protect our intellectual property rights and become subject to intellectual property disputes.
We may become subject to claims for remuneration or royalties and indemnity provisions in various agreements, potentially exposing us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.
We use open source software, which could negatively affect our ability to offer our solutions and subject us to litigation or other actions.
Risks Relating to Regulatory Compliance and Legal Matters
Changes in laws, regulations and public perception; changes in the internet infrastructure; or changes in the practice of automated data collection, could impact our ability to gather, process, or update the data that we use to generate our solutions, diminish the demand for our solutions, or increase our exposure to legal action or financial penalties.
The classification of the actionable insights we provide to customers or the data we acquire and process as material non-public information, or MNPI, could result in a significant increase in the cancellation or non-renewal of customer agreements.
Failure to comply with trade restrictions and sanctions imposed by laws to which we are subject could expose us to penalties, third-party legal actions and reputational harm.
Action by governments could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows and sales to government entities and highly regulated organizations are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
As the regulatory framework for machine learning technology and artificial intelligence evolves, our business may be adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Being a Public Company

The requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention and changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may harm our results of operations.
We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company. Our estimates or judgments relating to our accounting policies may prove to be incorrect.

Risks Relating to Taxes

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company. If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares, such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
We are subject to changes in tax law and regulations in various jurisdictions. The tax benefits that may be available to us will require us to meet various conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which could increase our costs and taxes.
Our results of operations may be harmed if we are required to collect sales or other related taxes for subscriptions to our solutions in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so.
Our international operations may subject us to potential adverse tax consequences and changes in taxation of international business activities, the adoption of corporate tax reform policies, or changes in tax legislation or policies could impact our financial position and results of operations.





10


Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares

Concentration of share ownership with insiders will likely limit your ability to influence corporate matters.
Future sales of our ordinary shares in the public market could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline and/or share price may be volatile and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” may make our ordinary shares less attractive to investors.
We may lose our "foreign private issuer" status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
We do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.

Risks relating to Our Incorporation and Location in Israel

Conditions in Israel, including the recent attack by Hamas and other terrorist organizations from the Gaza Strip and elsewhere in the region, and Israel’s war against them, may adversely affect our operations and limit our ability to market our products, which would lead to a decrease in revenues, as could other Israeli political or economic factors (including economic boycotts by other countries).
It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us or assert U.S. securities laws claims in Israel or serve process on our officers and directors.
Your rights and responsibilities as our shareholder will be governed by Israeli law and provisions of Israeli law and our amended and restated articles of association may delay, prevent or make undesirable an acquisition of all or a significant portion of our shares or assets. Our amended and restated articles of association provide that the competent courts in Tel Aviv, Israel shall be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between the Company and its shareholders under the Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law.


PART I
 
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.

Item 3. Key Information
A.[Reserved.]


B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.
C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.


11


D.Risk Factors
Our business faces significant risks. You should carefully consider the risks described below and in our other filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including the following risk factors that we face and that are faced by our industry, before making an investment decision. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price and value of our ordinary shares could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This Annual Report also contains forward- looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, see “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us as described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
Our recent growth and rapid technological development make it difficult to forecast our revenue and evaluate our business and future prospects.
While we were founded in 2009 and we launched our platform in 2013, many of the key features of our platform and solutions have only launched in the past few years, and, accordingly, much of our growth has occurred in recent periods. Our recent and rapid growth makes it difficult to evaluate our business, including our ability to forecast our sales and future results of operations, plan our operating expenses and model future growth. If the assumptions that we use to plan our business are incorrect or change, or if we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or growth, it may be difficult to achieve and maintain profitability and our stock price could be volatile. Furthermore, we operate in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological innovation, intense competition, changing customer needs and frequent introductions of new products, technologies and services. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly evolving industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks and uncertainties successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing operating expenses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability.
We have incurred net losses of $69.0 million, $83.7 million, and $29.4 million in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future. Because the market for the solutions, features and capabilities we offer is rapidly evolving and, we believe, under-penetrated, it is difficult for us to predict our future results of operations or the limits of our market opportunity.Although our operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased by $28.1 million from $227.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, we expect our operating expenses will increase over the next several years as we hire additional personnel, expand our operations and infrastructure, both in existing geographies in which we operate as well as new geographical markets, continue to enhance the Similarweb brand and develop and expand our solution offerings, features and capabilities. We also expect our general and administrative expenses to increase as we grow and operate as a public company. Achieving our goals and operating our business may prove more expensive than we anticipate and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently, or at all, to offset these higher expenses. Revenue growth may slow, or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, including slowing demand for our solutions or increasing competition. If we fail to increase our revenue as we grow our business, we may not achieve profitability, which would cause our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows to suffer.



12


If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan or maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction.
We have experienced rapid growth, and anticipate that we will continue to experience further growth in our operations and headcount. Our growth has placed, and future growth will place, a significant strain on our management, technical, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. For example, our headcount has grown by 56% from 576 employees at the end of 2020 to 899 employees as of December 31, 2023, notwithstanding a reduction in force of approximately 10% during the fourth quarter of 2022 and an additional reduction in force of approximately 6% during the second quarter of 2023. In addition, we continued to expand internationally, including in Singapore in 2022 and recently in the Czech Republic in 2024. Our success will depend in part on our ability to manage this growth effectively. To manage the expected growth of our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our management, technical, administrative, operational and financial controls and our reporting systems and procedures. We will require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management resources to grow and change in these areas without undermining our culture, which has been central to our growth thus far. Failure to effectively manage our growth could result in difficulty or delays in effectively scaling our platform or solutions, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties.
As we expand our business, it is important that we continue to maintain a high level of customer service and satisfaction. As our paid customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our account management, customer service and other personnel, our partners and our features. Failure to take appropriate measures to support our customer, user and data growth, may result in declines in quality or user satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties. Any of these difficulties could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Additionally, due to market conditions over the course of 2022 and 2023, we re-evaluated our organizational structure and implemented reductions in force during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, and may implement further reductions in force in the future. Any reduction in force may yield unintended consequences and costs, including additional attrition beyond the amount of force reduction, distraction to our employees, reduced employee morale and adverse effects on our reputation as an employer. Such reductions in force may also make it more difficult for us to hire new employees in the future and may limit the anticipated benefits from the reduction in force.
We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors, which make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance, and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this Annual Report, factors that may affect our quarterly operating results include the following:
our ability to attract and retain customers and grow subscriptions of existing customers;
our ability to price and package our platform and solutions effectively;
pricing pressure as a result of competition or otherwise;
unforeseen costs and expenses, including those related to the expansion or reorganization of our business and operations;
changes in customers’ budgets and in the timing of their budget cycles and purchasing decisions;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including consolidation among competitors or organizations using our solutions and the introduction of new solutions or solution enhancements;
the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly research and development, sales and marketing expenses and employee benefit expenses;
the timing of revenue and expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies, solutions or businesses;
potential goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges and amortization associated with acquired businesses;
potential restructuring and transaction-related expenses;
13


the amount and timing of costs associated with recruiting, training and integrating new employees while maintaining our company culture as well as the amount and timing of costs associated with retention of employees;
seasonal buying patterns for purchasing or renewing subscriptions for digital intelligence solutions;
our ability to manage our existing business and future growth, including increases in the number of users on our platform and the introduction and adoption of our platform in new markets outside of the United States;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; and
general economic and political conditions in our domestic and international markets, including the impact of rising inflation and interest rates.
We may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future subscriptions, revenue and expenses and, as a result, our operating results may fall below our estimates or the expectations of securities analysts and investors. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, or below any guidance we may provide, the price of our ordinary shares could decline.
The market and services categories in which we participate are competitive, new and rapidly changing.
Our platform falls within a new category of business technology in a rapidly evolving market for services, programs and tools used by companies with an online presence and their knowledge workers. This market is intensely competitive, fragmented and subject to rapidly changing technology, shifting customer and organizational needs, new market entrants and frequent introductions of new solutions and services.
With respect to our solutions, we compete with market research companies such as GfK Group and Kantar Group, traditional media measurement solutions such as The Nielsen Corporation and comScore, Inc., manual project-based approaches to specific business challenges provided by management consulting companies such as McKinsey & Company, Bain & Company and Accenture plc and media buying and advertising agencies such as WPP plc, Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group. With the introduction of new technologies and new market entrants, we expect competition to intensify in the future. Established companies may not only develop their own communication and collaboration solutions, platforms for software integration and secure repositories of information and data, but also acquire or establish solution integration, distribution or other cooperative relationships with our current competitors. For example, while we currently provide our services and solutions to Google Inc., Amazon.com, Inc., and Microsoft Corporation, among others, they may develop and introduce products that directly or indirectly compete with our solutions.
Moreover, we expect competition to increase in the future both from our existing competitors and from new market entrants, including established technology companies who have not previously entered the market.  New competitors or alliances among competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share due to factors such as greater brand name recognition, a larger existing customer base, superior solution offerings, a larger or more effective sales organization and significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and experience. We also compete with companies that offer specific point solutions in the communication, collaboration and data use markets, normally focused on specific industries, geographies, specific media or specific use cases, which attempt to address some of the problems that our solutions address. In addition, with the recent increase in large merger and acquisition transactions in the technology industry, particularly transactions involving cloud-based technologies, there is a greater likelihood that we will compete with other large technology companies in the future. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions in an evolving industry. Companies resulting from such consolidations may create more compelling product offerings and be able to offer more attractive pricing options, making it more difficult for us to compete effectively. If we fail to introduce new solutions, develop existing solutions or otherwise fail to meet and address the evolving needs of our market, this could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
If we do not compete effectively with established companies as well as new market entrants our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows could be harmed.
Many of our existing competitors have, and some of our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:
greater brand name recognition and longer operating histories;
larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;
greater and/or more diverse data sources and/or access to unique, proprietary data sources;
14


broader distribution and established relationships with independent software vendors, partners and customers;
access to larger customer bases;
greater customer experience resources and support;
greater resources to make acquisitions;
lower labor and development costs;
larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios; and
substantially greater financial, technical and other resources.
As a result, they may be able to adapt more quickly and effectively to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements.
In addition, some of our larger competitors have substantially broader offerings and can leverage their relationships based on other products or solutions or incorporate functionality into existing products or solutions to gain business in a manner that discourages customers from purchasing our solutions, including through selling at zero or negative margins, solution bundling or closed technology platforms. Potential customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of solution performance or features. As a result, even if the features of our platform are superior, potential customers may not purchase our offerings. Larger competitors may have broader solution lines and market focus and will therefore not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. Our competitors may also seek to repurpose their existing offerings to provide software, services, programs and tools used by knowledge workers with subscription models. Further, some current and potential customers, particularly large organizations, have elected, and may in the future elect, to develop or acquire their own software, services, programs and tools used by knowledge workers that would reduce or eliminate the demand for our platform and solutions.
Conditions in our market could also change rapidly and significantly due to technological advancements, partnering by our competitors or continuing market consolidation, and it is uncertain how our market will evolve. New start-up companies that innovate and large competitors that are making significant investments in research and development may invent similar or superior solutions and technologies that compete with us. These competitive pressures in our market or our failure to compete effectively may result in price reductions, fewer customers, reduced revenue, gross profit and gross margins, increased net losses and loss of market share. Any failure to meet and address these factors could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
A reduction or decline in participation in our contributory network and/or increase in the volume of opt-out requests from individuals with respect to our collection of their data, or a decrease in our direct measurement dataset, could lead to a deterioration in the depth, breadth or accuracy of our data and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
We have a number of sources contributing to the depth, breadth and accuracy of the data on our platform. These include our contributory network consisting of end users who use our business-to-customer, or B2C, products or B2C products of our partners through which we collect anonymized user data, and our “direct measurement data”, consisting of website and app owners who give us access to their Google Analytics or other direct measurement metrics. If we are not able to attract new participants or maintain existing participants in our contributory network or direct measurement dataset, our ability to effectively gather new data and update and maintain the accuracy of our database could be adversely affected. Additionally, data privacy regulatory changes as well as the introduction of app- and device-level opt-out settings by certain mobile device and operating system providers increase the degree to which individuals opt-out of having their data collected or avoid such collection altogether, which could result in lower rates of B2C product end user adoption and higher rates of opting out, thereby reducing the size and depth of our contributory network. Third-party intermediaries have emerged, and we expect that others will emerge that offer the ability for users to opt out of their personal and other data being collected at scale (i.e., from all platforms and products, including ours and the third-party products with whom we partner for data collection). Consequently, our ability to grow our business may be harmed and our results of operations and financial condition could suffer.



15


If we are unable to attract new customers and expand subscriptions of current customers, our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows will be adversely affected. Any decline in our dollar-based net retention rate would harm our future operating results.

To increase our revenue and achieve and maintain profitability, we must continue to attract new customers and maintain and grow the subscriptions of existing customers. Our go-to-market efforts are intended to identify and attract prospective customers and convert them into paying customers, including the conversion of paying customers of solutions on our basic plan to higher tier services. In addition, we seek to expand existing customer subscriptions by adding new customers or additional solutions or services, including through expanding the adoption of our platform into other departments within organizations. We do not know whether we will continue to achieve similar client acquisition and subscription growth rates in the future as we have in the past. Numerous factors may impede our ability to add new customers and grow existing customer subscriptions, including our failure to attract and effectively train new marketing, sales and account management personnel despite increasing our sales efforts, to retain and motivate our current marketing, sales and account management personnel, to develop or expand relationships with partners, to successfully deploy new features and capabilities of our solutions and services, to provide quality customer experience or to ensure the effectiveness of our go-to-market programs. Additionally, increasing our sales to large organizations (both existing and prospective users) requires increasingly sophisticated and costly sales and account management efforts targeted at senior management and other personnel. Recently, weakness in global macroeconomic conditions has caused companies to reduce their budgets for acquiring new products and solutions like those that we sell, which has led to a lengthening of our sales cycles. If our efforts to sell to organizations are not successful or do not generate additional revenue, our business will suffer.
Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the widespread adoption of our platform and solutions as an alternative to existing or newly emerging solutions. The adoption of software as a service, or SaaS, business software may be slower in industries with heightened data security interests or business practices requiring highly customizable application software. In addition, as our market matures, our solutions evolve, and competitors introduce lower cost or differentiated solutions that are perceived to compete with our platform and solutions, our ability to sell subscriptions for our solutions could be impaired. Similarly, our subscription sales could be adversely affected if organizations or users within these organizations perceive that features incorporated into competitive solutions reduce the need for our solutions or if they prefer to purchase other solutions that are bundled with solutions offered by other companies that operate in adjacent markets and compete with our solutions. As a result of these and other factors, we may be unable to attract new customers, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Moreover, our business is subscription-based, and therefore our customers are not obligated to and may not renew their subscriptions after their existing subscriptions expire or may renew at a lower price, which may occur if customers choose to reduce their data access rights under their subscription, reduce the solutions to which they have access, or reduce their number of users. Our subscription agreements typically last for a minimum term of one year and are renewable thereafter. While many of our subscriptions provide for automatic renewal, our customers may opt-out of automatic renewal and customers have no obligation to renew a subscription after the expiration of the term.
In order for us to maintain or improve our results of operations, it is important that our customers renew or expand their subscriptions with us. We cannot accurately predict our renewals and dollar-based net retention rate given the diversity of our customer base, in terms of size, industry and geography. Our renewals and dollar-based net retention rate may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside our control, including the business strength or weakness of our customers, customer usage, including the ability of our customers to quickly integrate our products into their businesses and continually find new uses for our solutions within their businesses, customer satisfaction with our solutions and platform capabilities and customer support, the utility of our platform to cost-effectively integrate with third-party software products, our prices, the capabilities and prices of competing products, mergers and acquisitions affecting our customer base, consolidation of affiliates’ multiple paid business accounts into a single paid business account or loss of business accounts in their entirety, the effects of global economic conditions, or reductions in our customers’ spending on information technology, or IT, solutions or their spending levels generally, perceived security or data privacy risks from the use of our solutions or changes in regulatory regimes that effect our customers or our ability to sell our solutions. These factors may also be exacerbated if, consistent with our growth strategy, our customer base continues to grow to encompass larger enterprises, which may also require more sophisticated and costly sales efforts. If our customers do not purchase
16


additional subscriptions and solutions from us or our customers fail to renew their subscriptions, our revenue may decline and our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows may be harmed.


Our customers may or may not renew their subscriptions as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our solutions, decreases in the number of users at the organization, our pricing or pricing structure, the pricing or capabilities of the products and services offered by our competitors, the effects of economic conditions (including as a result of general economic downturns) or reductions in our paying customers’ spending levels. In addition, our customers may renew for fewer subscriptions, renew for shorter contract lengths if they were previously on multi-year contracts, or switch to lower cost offerings of our solutions and services. It is difficult to predict attrition rates given our varied customer base of enterprise, mid-market and small business customers across many different industries and that are located worldwide. Our attrition rates may increase or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customer dissatisfaction with our solutions, customers’ spending levels, mix of customer base, decreases in the number of users at our customers, competition, pricing increases or changing or deteriorating general economic conditions. If customers do not renew their subscriptions or renew on less favorable terms or if we fail to add more customers, or if we fail to expand subscriptions of existing customers, our revenue may decline or grow less quickly than anticipated, which would harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
If we are not able to introduce new features or solutions successfully and to make enhancements to our solutions, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends in part on our ability to enhance and improve our solutions and to introduce new features and services. To grow our business and remain competitive, we must continue to enhance our solutions and develop features that reflect the constantly evolving nature of technology and our customers' needs. The success of any solutions, enhancements or developments depends on several factors: our anticipation of market changes and demands for solution features, including timely solution introduction, sufficient customer demand, cost-effectiveness in our solution development efforts and the proliferation of new technologies that are able to deliver competitive products and solutions at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely. In addition, because our solutions are designed to operate with a variety of systems, applications, data and devices, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our solutions to keep pace with changes in such systems. We may not be successful in developing these modifications and enhancements. Furthermore, the addition of features and solutions to our platform will increase our research and development expenses. Any new features that we develop may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate sufficient revenue to justify the related expenses. It is difficult to predict customer adoption of new features. Such uncertainty limits our ability to forecast our future results of operations and subjects us to a number of challenges, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. If we cannot address such uncertainties and successfully develop new features, enhance our software or otherwise overcome technological challenges and competing technologies, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Real or perceived errors, failures, vulnerabilities or bugs in our platform could result in a decline in the accuracy of the market intelligence insights we produce and/or cause other problems and harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
The software underlying our platform and solutions is highly technical and complex. Our software has previously contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors, bugs or vulnerabilities. In addition, errors, failures, bugs and vulnerabilities may be contained in the open source software we use to build and operate our solutions or may result from errors in the deployment or configuration of open source software. Some errors in our software may only be discovered after the software has been deployed or may never be generally known. Any errors, failures, bugs or vulnerabilities discovered in our software after it has been deployed, or never generally discovered, could result in a decline in the accuracy of the intelligence we produce for customers, interruptions in platform availability, solution malfunctioning or data breaches, and thereby result in damage to our reputation, adverse effects upon customers, loss of customers and relationships with third parties, loss of revenue or liability for damages. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these problems or risks within an acceptable period of time.

17


If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data, proprietary information, personal information or other confidential information then our platform or our solutions may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform and solutions may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our platform and solutions involve the storage and transmission of anonymized user data, direct measurement data, and confidential data about our customers such as their e-mail address and other information they use to register to use our platform. Therefore, security breaches or unauthorized access to our platform and solutions could result in the loss of our or our customers’ confidential data, litigation, indemnity obligations, fines, penalties, disputes, investigations and other liabilities. Any security breach or perceived security breach could also result in media attention and reputational harm to our business. We have previously and may in the future become the target of cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to our or our customers’ data or to disrupt our ability to provide our services.
While we have taken steps to put in place a mature security program, a recent independent cybersecurity maturity assessment report graded our security measures and program risky and not mature in certain material respects. We are in the process of remediating our program however we have not yet completed such remediation. If not remedied, the gaps identified in the report create a greater risk that our security measures could be breached.
While we have taken steps to protect the confidential information to which we have access (including our own valuable, proprietary, and trade secret information), as well as measures to ensure we do not become privy to confidential data beyond the scope of what is required to develop our insights and provide our solutions, our security measures or those of our third-party service providers that store or otherwise process certain of our and our customers’ confidential data on our behalf could be breached or we could suffer a loss of our or our customers’ confidential data. Our ability to monitor our third-party service providers’ data security may be limited. Cyber-attacks, computer malware, viruses, social engineering (including spear phishing and ransomware attacks) and general hacking have become more prevalent in our industry, particularly against cloud services. In addition, intentional or accidental actions or inaction by employees or other third parties with authorized access to our networks may result in the exposure of vulnerabilities that may be exploited or expose us to liability. Third parties may also conduct attacks designed to temporarily deny customers access to our cloud services. If we experience any breaches of security measures or sabotage or otherwise suffer unauthorized use or disclosure of, or access to, personal information, financial account information or other confidential information it could disrupt normal business operations, require us to spend material resources to investigate or correct the breach and to prevent future security breaches and incidents, expose us to legal liabilities, including litigation, regulatory enforcement, and indemnity obligations, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows, and we might be required to expend significant capital and resources to address these problems. We may not be able to remedy any problems caused by hackers or other similar actors in a timely manner, or at all. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until after they are launched against a target, we and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. If a breach of security or other data security incident occurs or is perceived to have occurred, the perception of the effectiveness of our security measures and reputation could be harmed and we could lose current and potential customers, even if the security breach were to also affect one or more of our competitors. Further, concerns about practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure or security of personal information, financial account information or other confidential information, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our results of operations.
Because there are many different security breach techniques and such techniques continue to evolve, we may be unable to anticipate attempted security breaches, react in a timely manner or implement adequate preventative measures. Third parties may also conduct attacks designed to temporarily deny users access to our cloud services. Any security breach or other security incident, or the perception that one has occurred, could result in a loss of user confidence in the security of our platform and damage to our brand, reduce the demand for our solutions, disrupt normal business operations, require us to spend material resources to investigate or correct the breach and to prevent future security breaches and incidents, expose us to legal liabilities, including litigation, regulatory enforcement, and indemnity obligations, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These risks are likely to increase as we continue to grow and process, store, and transmit increasingly large amounts of data.


18


We also process, store and transmit our own data as part of our business and operations. This data may include confidential or proprietary information. There can be no assurance that any security measures that we or our third-party service providers have implemented will be effective against current or future security threats. While we have developed systems and processes to protect the integrity, confidentiality and security of our and our customers’ data, our security measures or those of our third-party service providers could fail and result in unauthorized access to or disclosure, modification, misuse, loss or destruction of such data.
We use third-party technology and systems in a variety of contexts, including, without limitation, employee email, content delivery to customers, back-office support, credit card processing and other functions. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect customer data and prevent data loss and other security breaches, including systems and processes designed to reduce the impact of a security breach at a third-party service provider, such measures cannot provide absolute security.
We have established and implemented an Incident Response Policy designed to protect confidential information and systems in the face of cyber-attacks, security threats and breaches. The primary goal of the policy is to contain a cyber threat while continuing normal business operations quickly and effectively. The policy is reviewed at least annually and updated, if required, to reflect our changing organization, new technologies and new compliance requirements that inform our cyber security strategy. We also conduct regular testing of this policy to achieve reasonable assurance that relevant personnel are fully trained to participate in effective incident response. The policy requires a cross-functional team of people to manage the systems, legal, and communication issues that arise and includes provisions for detecting and reporting information security events and for defining and implementing response plans and action plans for information security incidents. Our Chief Information Security Officer leads the response and handling of the security incident and coordinates and directs all related mitigation activities. The policy includes conclusion and learning plans pursuant to which, after the resolution of a security incident, the incident will be studied in order to identify and understand the flaws, breaches and faults that enabled its occurrence as well as the measures that should be taken to prevent a recurrence. The policy provides that security incidents shall be documented by our Chief Information Security Officer. Such documentation includes date of incident, detailed description of the incident, systems affected, evidence gathered, treatment plan, status and lessons learned.
Additionally, we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data security liabilities actually incurred, will cover any indemnification claims against us relating to any incident, will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
If we fail to maintain and improve our methods and technologies, or anticipate new methods or technologies, for data collection, organization and cleansing, competing products and services could surpass ours in depth, breadth or accuracy of our insights or in other respects.
Current or future competitors may seek to develop new methods and technologies for more efficiently gathering, cataloging or updating business information, which could allow a competitor to create a product comparable or superior to ours, or that takes substantial market share from us or that creates or maintains databases to produce insights at a lower cost than we experience. We can expect continuous improvements in computer hardware, network operating systems, programming tools, programming languages, operating systems, data matching, data filtering, data analysis tools and other technologies and the use of the internet. These improvements, as well as changes in customer preferences or regulatory requirements, may require changes in the technology used to gather and process data. Also, the emergence and growth of artificial-intelligence powered chatbots and related tools (such as ChatGPT) could obfuscate a portion of search activity by users that would otherwise be conducted through Internet search engines and thus reduce the volume of digital activity available to us for analysis using our current data collection methodology. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to:
internally develop and implement new and competitive technologies;
use leading third-party technologies effectively; and
respond to advances in data collection and cataloging and creating insights.
19


If we fail to respond to changes in data technology and analysis to create insights, competitors may be able to develop solutions that will take market share from us, and the demand for our solutions, the delivery of our solutions or our market reputation could be adversely affected.
If we are not able to obtain and maintain comprehensive and reliable data to generate our insights, we could experience reduced demand for our solutions.
Our success depends on our customers’ confidence in the depth, breadth and reliability of our insights, which are based on our data. The task of establishing and maintaining reliable data is challenging and expensive. The depth, breadth and reliability of our data differentiates us from our competitors. If our data, including the data we obtain from third parties and our data collection, extraction, cleaning and insights, are not current, sufficiently accurate, comprehensive or reliable, it would increase the likelihood of negative customer experiences, which in turn would reduce the likelihood of customers renewing or upgrading their subscriptions and harm our reputation, making it more difficult to obtain new customers. In addition, if we are not able to maintain a high level of reliability for our insights, we may face legal claims by our customers which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Our business may be harmed if we change our methodologies or the scope of information we collect.
We have in the past and may in the future change our data collection and aggregation methodologies, the algorithms we use to generate our estimated insights, or the scope and volume of information we collect. Such changes may result from identified deficiencies in current methodologies, development of more advanced methodologies, changes in our business plans or in industry standards or regulatory requirements, changes in technology used by websites, browsers, mobile applications, servers or media for which we generate estimated insights, integration of acquired companies or expressed or perceived needs of our customers, potential customers or partners. Any such changes or perceived changes, or our inability to accurately or adequately communicate to our customers and the media such changes and the potential implications of such changes on the data we have published or will publish in the future, may result in customer dissatisfaction, particularly if certain information is no longer collected or information collected in future periods is not comparable with information collected in prior periods, or if our estimated insights for future periods become incompatible or otherwise differ from the estimated insights we provided for prior periods. As a result of future methodology changes, some of our customers may decide not to continue buying our products or services which would negatively affect our revenue and financial results, and/or to publicly air their dissatisfaction with the methodological changes made by us, which may damage our brand and harm our reputation.
Failure to develop and expand our direct sales capabilities effectively could harm our ability to increase the number of organizations using our platform and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions.
Our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions and platform capabilities will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our sales and marketing organizations. We plan to continue expanding our direct sales force, both in existing geographies in which we operate and new international markets. We also plan to dedicate significant resources to our sales and marketing programs and to training our sales force. All of these efforts will require us to invest significant financial and other resources, including in channels in which we have limited or no experience to date. Our business and results of operations will be harmed if our sales and marketing efforts do not generate significant increases in revenue or increases in revenue that are smaller than anticipated. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire, develop, integrate and retain talented and effective sales personnel, if our new and existing sales personnel, on the whole, are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective. We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods. Our revenue was $137.7 million, $193.2 million and $218.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, representing annual growth of 40% and 13%, respectively. Our historical revenue growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance. In future periods, we may not be able to sustain revenue growth consistent with recent periods, or at
20


all. Further, as we operate in a new and rapidly changing category of services, widespread acceptance and use of our digital intelligence generally and our solutions is critical to our future growth and success. We believe our revenue growth depends on several factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:
attract new users and customers;
provide excellent service to our users and customers;
grow or maintain our net dollar-based retention rate, or NRR, and expand the usage of our solutions within the organizations already using our solutions;
minimize the cancellation of paid subscriptions for our solutions or the reduction in the scope or price for our solutions by our customers;
maintain and grow our available data sources in order to adequately meet the needs of our solution development;
introduce and grow the adoption of our solutions in new markets outside of the markets in which we currently operate;
improve the performance and capabilities of our platform and solutions through research and development;
drive traffic to our online platform, convert traffic to free offerings and convert users of our free offerings to paid subscriptions;
convert customers and organizations utilizing our offerings to higher tier services;
deal with concerns related to actual or perceived security breaches, reliability, outages or other defects related to our platform;
adequately expand our sales force and research and development organization and otherwise scale our operations as a business;
comply with existing and new applicable laws and regulations, primarily in the area of data privacy and protection;
effectively price our solutions to attract and retain users while achieving and maintaining profitability;
successfully compete against new and existing market players; and
increase global awareness of our brand.
If we are unable to accomplish these tasks, our revenue growth would be harmed. In addition, we expect to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources on:
our sources of data;
our technology infrastructure, including systems architecture, scalability, availability, performance and security;
our sales and marketing organization to engage our existing and prospective customers, increase brand awareness and drive adoption of our solutions;
solution development, including investments in our solution development team and the development of new solutions and new functionalities for our platform as well as investments in further optimizing our existing solutions, research, algorithms and infrastructure;
acquisitions or strategic investments;
international expansion; and
general administration, including legal and accounting expenses associated with being a public company, such as insurance for our directors and officers.
These investments may not result in increased revenue growth in our business. If we are unable to maintain or increase our revenue at a rate sufficient to offset the expected increase in our costs, our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows will be harmed, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability over the long term.





21


We rely upon third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure to host our solutions. Any disruption in the operations of these third-party providers, limitations on capacity or interference with our use could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.

We outsource all of the infrastructure relating to our cloud solution to third-party hosting services, specifically to Amazon Web Services, or AWS, which is our sole provider of these services and hosts our platform, manage data, mobile application, and many of the internal tools we use to operate our business. We have a commitment with AWS through May 31, 2026 and our agreement with AWS is not terminable for convenience by either party. Our platform, mobile application and internal tools use computing, storage capabilities, bandwidth and other services provided by AWS. We rely solely upon AWS to ensure the uninterrupted operation of our cloud-based infrastructure, and therefore any significant disruption of, limitation of our access to, or other interference with our use of AWS would negatively impact our operations and could seriously harm our business. In addition, any transition of the cloud services currently provided by AWS to another cloud services provider would require significant time and expense and could disrupt or degrade delivery of our platform. Our business relies on the availability of our platform for our customers, and we may lose customers if they are not able to access our platform or encounter difficulties in doing so. The level of service provided by AWS could affect the availability or speed of our platform, which may also impact the usage of, and our customers’ satisfaction with, our platform and could seriously harm our business and reputation. If AWS increases pricing terms, terminates or seeks to terminate our contractual relationship, establishes more favorable relationships with our competitors, changes or interprets its terms of service or policies in a manner that is unfavorable with respect to us or fails to agree to renew our contract or enter into a new contract on terms that are acceptable to us, our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows may be harmed.
Any limitation on the capacity of AWS could impede our ability to onboard new customers or expand the usage of our existing customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, any incident affecting AWS's infrastructure that may be caused by cyber-attacks, natural disasters, fire, flood, severe storm, earthquake, power loss, telecommunications failures, terrorist or other attacks, regional epidemics or global pandemics such as COVID-19 and other similar events beyond our control could negatively affect our cloud-based solutions. The cloud services we receive from AWS include design features and elements designed to prevent or minimize service disruption, including a disaster recovery service and the use of two distinct server farms in separate U.S.-based locations for hosting our platform and services, either one of which is capable of supporting our platform and services without material interruption even in the event of a failure at the other, corresponding server farm. Nevertheless, a prolonged service disruption affecting our cloud-based solution could negatively impact our ability to serve our customers and could damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability, cause us to lose customers or otherwise harm our business. We may also incur significant costs for using alternative equipment or taking other actions in preparation for, or in reaction to, events that damage the third-party hosting services we use.
In addition, we rely on hardware and infrastructure purchased or leased from third parties and software licensed from third parties to operate critical business functions. Our business would be disrupted if any of this third-party hardware, software and infrastructure becomes unavailable on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Furthermore, delays or complications with respect to the transition of critical business functions from one third-party product to another, or any errors or defects in third-party hardware, software or infrastructure could result in errors in our solutions or a failure of our platform, which could harm our business and results of operations.
In the event that our service agreements with our third-party hosting services or providers are terminated, or there is a lapse of service, delay in service, elimination of services or features that we utilize, interruption of internet service provider connectivity or damage to such facilities, we could experience interruptions in access to our platform as well as significant delays and additional expense in arranging or creating new facilities and services and/or re-architecting our cloud solution for deployment on a different cloud infrastructure service provider, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.



22


Our data collection methodology depends in part on the ability to distribute products used for data collection through third-party platforms and stores, and if we lose access to those platforms or stores or if we or our partners are otherwise restricted from distributing products through those platforms or stores, our business could suffer.
Our platform and solutions depend in part on the ability to obtain data for our contributory network through browser extensions, mobile apps and other products distributed through third-party online platforms and stores such as Chrome Web Store, Google Play and the Apple App Store. These include our own browser extension and mobile app products, and products distributed by third parties with whom we collaborate and into which products we integrate our data collection tools. We continuously look to seek out and enter into relationships with new partners for the integration of our data collection tools into their products, and the availability and quality of this data is important to the continued functioning and development of our products and the performance of our obligations to customers. We may have difficulty finding and entering into agreements with new partners, and/or maintaining current relationships with existing partners. Failure to find and enter into agreements with new partners, and/or to maintain current relationships with existing partners, could result in inadequate data for our ongoing and future product requirements.
The third-party platforms and stores through which our products and partner products are distributed issue rules and guidelines governing their use, which include provisions that are often more restrictive than the requirements of applicable data privacy laws. These platforms and stores frequently modify these rules, and often enforce them in an inconsistent manner. Accordingly, there is an ongoing risk that these third-party platforms may remove our browser extension and mobile app products or our partners’ products from their stores, issue warnings necessitating modifications to the products or prevent a specific product owner or developer from distributing any of its products through their stores. These warnings and removals can result in interruptions and delays in the collection of data for our contributory network, in the need to allocate resources and incur costs for the modification of our products, in the suspension or termination of our partnerships with third parties and the cessation of integration of our data collection tools with those third parties' products, and in harm to our reputation. Any of these effects could negatively impact the functionality of, or require us to make changes to, our products and solutions, which would need to occur quickly to avoid interruptions in service for our customers.
Furthermore, our business, cash flows or results of operations may be harmed if any platform or store through which we or our partners distribute products we use for data collection changes, limits or discontinues our access to its platform or store; modifies its terms of service or other policies, including fees charged or restrictions on us or our partners; changes or limits how customer information is accessed by us or our partners; changes or limits how we can use customer information and other data collected through the platforms or stores; or experiences disruptions of its technology, services or business generally.

    We depend on third parties for data that is critical to our business, and our business could suffer if we cannot continue to obtain reliable data from these suppliers or if third parties place additional restrictions on our use of such data.
We rely on third-party data sources for traffic and engagement information related to the websites and apps for which we generate estimated insights and metrics, demographics about the audiences that use such platforms, and related information about digital trends. We continuously look to seek out and enter into relationships with new suppliers for data in order to enrich our data sources, and the availability and quality of this data is important to the continued functioning and development of our solutions and the fulfillment of our obligations to customers. Failure to find and enter into agreements with new partners, and/or to maintain current relationships with existing partners, could result in inadequate data for our ongoing and future solution requirements. Our data suppliers may increase restrictions on our use of such data, fail to adhere to our quality control, privacy or security standards, or otherwise satisfactorily perform services, increase the price they charge us for the data or refuse to license the data to us. Additional restrictions on third-party data could limit our ability to include that data in certain solutions, which could lead to decreased commercial opportunities for certain solutions as well as loss of customers, obligations to provide refunds, or liability to our customers. To comply with any additional restrictions, we may be required to implement certain additional technological and manual controls that could put pressure on our cost structure and could affect our pricing. Since we rely on third-party data sources , notwithstanding our best efforts, we may receive third-party data that is inaccurate, defective, or delayed, or which does not meet our compliance standards or the requirements of applicable data privacy laws and regulations. If third-party information is not available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or is found to be inaccurate or otherwise unsuitable for our needs, it could lead to costly and time-consuming contractual disputes or harm our solutions, our reputation and our business and financial performance.
23


If we fail to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand the number of organizations using our solutions will be impaired, our reputation may be harmed, and our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows may suffer.
Our future success depends upon our ability to create and maintain brand recognition and a reputation for delivering easy and efficient solutions. A failure by us to build our brand and deliver on these expectations could harm our reputation and damage our ability to attract and retain consumers, which could adversely affect our business. We also believe that developing and maintaining awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our platform and solutions and is an important element in attracting new customers and users to our platform. Furthermore, we believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to ensure that our platform remains high-quality, reliable and useful at competitive prices, as well as with respect to our free offering.
As our market becomes increasingly competitive, increasing awareness of our platform may become more difficult and expensive. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract new customers and users or grow or maintain our retention rates to the extent necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, and our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows could suffer.
In addition, independent industry analysts often provide reviews of our solutions, as well as the solutions offered by our competitors, and perception of the relative value of our platform in the marketplace may be significantly influenced by these reviews. If these reviews are negative, or less positive as compared to those of our competitors’ solutions, our brand may be harmed.
We offer free trials and a free offering of our platform to drive awareness of our solutions and encourage usage and adoption. If these marketing strategies fail to lead to users purchasing paid subscriptions, our ability to grow our revenue will be adversely affected.
To encourage awareness, usage, familiarity and adoption of our platform and solutions, we offer free trials and a free offering of our platform. Our marketing strategy depends in part on users of our free trial and free tier versions of our platform convincing others within their organizations to use our solutions and to become paying customers. These strategies may not be successful in leading users to purchase our solutions. Many customers of our free tier may not lead to others within their organization purchasing and deploying our platform and solutions. To the extent that users do not become, or we are unable to successfully attract paying customers, we will not realize the intended benefits of these marketing strategies and our ability to grow our revenue will be adversely affected.
Because our success depends, in part, on our ability to expand sales internationally, our business will be susceptible to risks associated with international operations.
We currently maintain offices and/or have sales and development personnel outside of Israel in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Australia, Ukraine, Germany and Singapore and we intend to expand our international operations by developing a sales presence in other international markets. In the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023 our non-U.S. revenue was 55.6%, 53.0%, and 52.5% of our total revenue, respectively. We expect to continue to expand our international operations, which may include operating in new jurisdictions and providing our solutions in additional languages. Any additional international expansion efforts that we are undertaking and may undertake may not be successful. In addition, conducting international operations subjects us to new risks, some of which we have not generally faced in Israel, the United States or other countries where we currently operate. These risks include, among other things:
unexpected costs and errors in the localization of our platform and solutions, including translation into foreign languages and adaptation for local culture, practices and regulatory requirements;
lack of familiarity and burdens of complying with foreign laws, legal standards, privacy and cybersecurity standards, regulatory requirements, tariffs and other barriers, and the risk of penalties to our customers and individual members of management or employees if our practices are deemed to not be in compliance;
practical difficulties of enforcing intellectual property rights in countries with varying laws and standards and reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
24


an evolving legal framework and additional legal or regulatory requirements for data privacy and cybersecurity, which may necessitate the establishment of systems to maintain data in local markets, requiring us to invest in additional data centers and network infrastructure, and the implementation of additional employee data privacy documentation (including locally-compliant data privacy notice and policies), all of which may involve substantial expense and may cause us to need to divert resources from other aspects of our business, all of which may adversely affect our business;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, taxes, trade laws, tariffs, export quotas, custom duties or other trade restrictions;
difficulties in managing systems integrators and technology partners;
differing technology standards;
different pricing environments, longer sales cycles, longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
difficulties in managing and staffing international operations including the proper classification of independent contractors and other contingent workers, differing employer/employee relationships and local employment laws;
recruiting and retaining contractors in the Ukraine, in light of its current war with Russia and any aftermath thereof;
increased costs involved with recruiting and retaining an expanded employee population outside Israel and the United States through cash and equity-based incentive programs and unexpected legal costs and regulatory restrictions in issuing our shares to employees outside the United States;
global political and regulatory changes may lead to restrictions on immigration and travel for our employees outside Israel, the United States and our other office locations;
economic recessions or uncertainty in financial markets, including the impact of rising global inflation and interest rates;
fluctuations in exchange rates that may decrease the value of our foreign-based revenue or increase our costs;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax (or other tax) systems, and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings; and
permanent establishment risks and complexities in connection with international payroll, tax and social security requirements for international employees.
Additionally, operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. We cannot be certain that the investment and additional resources required in establishing operations in other countries will produce desired levels of revenue or profitability. In addition, political, economic and security conditions in countries in which we operate or have users, including Russia and Ukraine, may limit our ability to provide our services in those and in neighboring countries.
Compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our global operations also substantially increases our cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. We have limited experience in marketing, selling and supporting our platform outside of Israel and the United States. Our limited experience in operating our business internationally increases the risk that any potential future expansion efforts that we may undertake will not be successful. If we invest substantial time and resources to expand our international operations and are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows will suffer. We may be unable to keep current with changes in government requirements as they change from time to time. Failure to comply with these regulations could harm our business. In many countries, it is common for others to engage in business practices that are prohibited by our internal policies and procedures or other regulations applicable to us. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and policies, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors, partners and agents will comply with these laws and policies. Violations of laws or key control policies by our employees, contractors, partners or agents could result in delays in revenue recognition, financial reporting misstatements, enforcement actions, reputational harm, disgorgement of profits, fines, civil and criminal penalties, damages, injunctions, other collateral consequences or the prohibition of the importation or exportation of our solutions and could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.


25


Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks and costs, including the ability to engage with customers in new geographies, exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, that can adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
There are a variety of risks and costs associated with our international sales and operations, which include making investments prior to the proven adoption of our solutions, the cost of conducting our business internationally and hiring and training international employees and the costs associated with complying with local law. Furthermore, we cannot predict the rate at which our platform and solutions will be accepted in international markets by potential customers. We currently have sales and/or customer support personnel outside Israel and the United States in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Australia, Singapore and Germany; however, our sales organization outside Israel and the United States is substantially smaller than our Israeli and U.S. sales organizations. We believe our ability to attract new customers to subscribe to our platform or to attract existing customers to renew or expand their use of our platform is directly correlated to the level of engagement we obtain with the customer. To the extent we are unable to effectively engage with international customers due to our limited sales force capacity, we may be unable to effectively grow in international markets.

As our international operations expand, our exposure to the effects of fluctuations in currency exchange rates grows. While we have primarily transacted with customers in U.S. dollars and Euros, and with vendors in NIS and U.S dollars, historically, we expect to continue to expand the number of transactions with our customers that are denominated in foreign currencies in the future. However, a significant portion of our operating expenses, consisting principally of personnel-related costs, office and occupancy related costs and certain other operating expenses, are denominated in NIS. In the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, approximately 40%, 45% and 40% of our expenses were denominated in NIS. As a result, we are exposed to exchange rate risks that may materially and adversely affect our financial results. Additionally, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar, Euros, Great Britain Pounds, Japanese Yen and/or NIS and foreign currencies may make our subscriptions more expensive for international customers, which could harm our business. Additionally, we incur expenses for employee compensation and other operating expenses at our non-Israeli and non-U.S. locations in the local currency for such locations. Fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar, Euros, Great Britain Pounds, Japanese Yen and/or NIS and other currencies could result in an increase to the U.S. dollar, Euros and/or NIS equivalent of such expenses. These fluctuations could cause our results of operations to differ from our expectations or the expectations of our investors. Additionally, such foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations could make it more difficult to detect underlying trends in our business and results of operations.
As of the data of this Annual Report, we maintain a program to hedge transactional exposures in certain foreign currencies. We may continue to use derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not offset any or more than a portion of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place. We cannot predict any future trends in the rate of inflation or deflation in Israel or the rate of appreciation or devaluation of the New Israeli Shekel against the U.S. dollar. The Israeli annual rate of inflation amounted to 2.8%, 5.3% and 3% for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022, and 2023, respectively. The annual appreciation (devaluation) of the New Israeli Shekel in relation to the U.S. dollar amounted to 3.3%,(13.2)% and (3.1)% for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022, and 2023, respectively. Moreover, the use of hedging instruments may introduce additional risks if we are unable to structure effective hedges with such instruments. For example, the United States has recently experienced historically high levels of inflation. The annual inflation rate for the United States was approximately 7.0% ,6.5% and 3.4% for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022, and 2023, respectively. Continued high inflation rates may affect our expenses, including employee compensation expenses and benefits as well as general and administrative costs. In the event inflation continues to increase, we may seek to increase the sales prices of our products and services in order to maintain satisfactory margins. Any attempts to offset cost increases with price increases may result in reduced sales, increase customer dissatisfaction or otherwise harm our reputation. Moreover, to the extent inflation has other adverse effects on the market, it may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

26


We have limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for our solutions.
We have limited experience in determining the optimal pricing and packaging of our solutions, and we may need to change our pricing model from time to time. Demand for our platform and solutions is sensitive to price, and current or prospective customers may choose not to subscribe or renew or upgrade their subscriptions due to costs. Further, certain of our competitors offer, or may in the future offer, lower-priced or free solutions or services that compete with our solutions and services or may bundle functionality compatible with our solutions and services and offer a broader range of solutions and services. Similarly, certain competitors may use marketing strategies that enable them to acquire customers more rapidly or at a lower cost than us, or both. As we expand to additional international markets, we may find that pricing and packaging appropriate in our current market is not acceptable to prospective customers in certain new markets.
If we fail to offer a high-quality customer experience, our business and reputation will suffer.
While we have designed our platform to be easy to adopt and use, once organizations and customers begin using our platform, those organizations and customers rely on our support services to resolve any technical, administrative or other issues. High-quality customer education and experience has been key to the adoption of our platform, for the conversion of individuals, teams and organizations on our trial version into paying customers, expansion of accounts, and for growth or maintenance of our retention rates. The importance of a high-quality customer experience will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers. For example, if we do not help customers on our platform quickly resolve issues and provide effective ongoing customer experience at the individual, team and organizational levels, our ability to convert organizations and customers on our free offering into paying customers will suffer and our reputation with existing or potential customers will be harmed. Further, our sales are highly dependent on our business reputation and on positive recommendations from existing individuals, teams and organizations using our platform and solutions. Any failure to maintain a high-quality customer experience, or a market perception that we do not maintain a high-quality customer experience, could harm our reputation, our ability to sell our solutions to existing and prospective customers, and our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, as we continue to grow our operations and reach a larger and increasingly global customer base, we need to be able to provide efficient customer support that meets the needs of organizations using our solutions globally at scale, which puts additional pressure on our support organization. If we are unable to provide efficient solution support globally at scale, including through the use of third-party contractors and self-service support, our ability to grow our operations may be harmed and we may need to hire additional support personnel, which could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Our business could be negatively affected by changes in search engine algorithms and dynamics or other traffic-generating arrangements.
We rely on internet search engines and digital distribution channels, including through the purchase of keywords and the indexing of our public-facing directory pages and other web pages, to generate a significant portion of the traffic to our website. Search engines frequently update and change the logic that determines the placement and display of results of a customer’s search, such that the purchased or algorithmic placement of links to our website can be negatively affected. Pricing and operating dynamics for these traffic sources can change rapidly, both technically and competitively. Moreover, a search engine could, for competitive or other purposes, alter its search algorithms or results, which could cause a website to place lower in search query results or inhibit participation in the search query results. If a major search engine changes its algorithms or results in a manner that negatively affects the search engine ranking, paid or unpaid, of our website, if competitive dynamics impact the costs or effectiveness of search engine optimization, or if search engine marketing or other traffic-generating arrangements in a negative manner, our business and financial performance would be adversely affected.





27


Our financial results may fluctuate due to increasing variability in our sales cycles as a substantial portion of our sales efforts are targeted at large organizations.
We sell and our strategy is to continue to sell subscriptions of our platform to our varied customer base of enterprise, mid-market and small business customers, as well as governments, non-profits, educational institutions and individuals with our Investor Intelligence solutions. Selling to individuals and small-to-medium businesses may involve greater credit risk and uncertainty, as well as lower retention rates and limited interaction with our sales and other personnel. Conversely, sales to enterprise customers may entail longer sales cycles and more significant selling efforts. The average length of our sales cycle is approximately between one and two months for small-to-medium businesses and approximately between two and three months for enterprise customers. However, sales cycles are subject to lengthening for various reasons, including macroeconomic factors. Any such lengthening of our average sales cycle may adversely affect our financial results. We plan our expenses based on certain assumptions about the length and variability of our sales cycle based upon historical trends for sales and conversion rates associated with our existing customers. If we are successful in expanding our customer base to include more enterprise customers, our sales cycles may lengthen and become less predictable, which, in turn, may adversely affect our financial results. Factors that may influence the length and variability of our sales cycle include:
the need to educate prospective customers about the uses and benefits of our platform and solutions;
the discretionary nature of purchase and budget cycles and decisions;
the competitive nature of evaluation and purchasing processes;
evolving functionality demands;
announcements of planned introductions of new solutions, features or functionality by us or our competitors; and
lengthy and multi-faceted purchasing approval processes.
If there are changes in the mix of customers and organizations that purchase our platform and solutions, our gross margins and operating results could be adversely affected, and fluctuations increasing the variability in our sales cycles could negatively affect our financial results. In addition, our yearly operating results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful.
Because we recognize subscription revenue over the subscription term, downturns or upturns in new sales and renewals or changes to pricing are not reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods.

We recognize revenue from subscriptions to our platform and other subscription products on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract subscription period beginning on the date access to our platform is granted, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Our subscription arrangements generally have contractual terms requiring advance payment for annual or quarterly periods. As a result, much of the revenue we report each quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from recurring subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed recurring subscription contracts in any one quarter will not be fully reflected in revenue in that quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our recurring subscriptions are not reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Similarly, an increase in the pricing of our subscription contracts would not be reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers is typically recognized over the applicable subscription term. By contrast, a majority of our costs are expensed as incurred, which could result in our recognition of more costs than revenue in the earlier portion of the subscription term, and we may not attain profitability in any given period.




28


Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our sales and results of operations.
Historically, we have experienced seasonality in new customer bookings, as we typically enter into a higher percentage of subscription agreements with new customers and renewals with existing customers in the fourth quarter of the year. We believe that this results from the procurement, budgeting and deployment cycles of many of our customers, particularly our enterprise customers. We expect that this seasonality will continue to affect our bookings and our results of operations in the future and might become more pronounced as we continue to target larger enterprise customers.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovative approach, creativity and teamwork fostered by our culture and our business could be harmed.
We believe that an important contributor to our success has been our corporate culture, which creates an environment that drives and perpetuates our strategy to create a better, more productive way to work and focuses on the development of our employees. As we continue to grow, including across multiple geographies or following acquisitions, and develop the infrastructure of a public company, we may find it difficult to preserve our corporate culture, which could reduce our ability to innovate, create and operate effectively. In turn, the failure to preserve our culture could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows by negatively affecting our ability to attract, recruit, integrate and retain employees, continue to perform at current levels and effectively execute our business strategy.
If we fail to retain and motivate members of our management team or other key employees or fail to attract additional qualified personnel to support our operations, our business and future growth prospects would be harmed.
Our success and future growth depend largely upon the continued services of our executive officers as well as our other key employees in the areas of research and development and sales and marketing functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team or other key employees resulting from the hiring or departure of these personnel. Our executive officers and other key employees are employed on an at-will basis, which means that these personnel could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers, or the failure by our executive team to effectively work with our employees and lead our company, could harm our business. We also are dependent on the continued service of our existing software engineers because of the complexity of our solutions and platform capabilities. Additionally, it may become more difficult for us to hire new executive officers or other key employees in the future because such persons may have a negative view of the Company following its reduction in force during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023 as well as any similar reductions.
In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially data scientists and for engineers experienced in designing and developing SaaS applications and experienced sales professionals, and such competition often results in increasing wages, especially in Israel, where most of our research and development positions are located, and in the United States, where we have a significant presence. We also engage a team of developers in the Ukraine in order to benefit from the significant pool of talent that is more readily available in such market (see General Risk Factor titled “Catastrophic events may disrupt our business” for a further discussion of the impact of conflict in Ukraine on our business). If we are unable to attract such personnel in cities where we are located, we may need to hire in other locations which may add to the complexity and costs of our business operations. From time to time, we have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached their legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, prospective and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, experiences significant volatility, or increases such that prospective employees believe there is limited upside to the value of our equity awards, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain key employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects would be harmed.

29


Competition for highly skilled technical and other personnel in Israel is intense, and as a result we may fail to attract, recruit, retain and develop qualified employees, which could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We compete in a market marked by rapidly changing technologies and an evolving competitive landscape. In order for us to successfully compete and grow, we must attract, recruit, retain and develop personnel with requisite qualifications to provide expertise across the entire spectrum of our intellectual capital and business needs.

Our principal research and development as well as significant elements of our sales and marketing and general and administrative activities are conducted at our headquarters in Israel, and we face significant competition for suitably skilled employees in Israel. The high-tech industry in Israel has experienced significant levels of employee attrition and currently faces a shortage of skilled human capital, including engineering, research and development and sales and customer support personnel. Many of the companies with which we compete for qualified personnel have greater resources than we do, and we may not succeed in recruiting additional experienced or professional personnel, retaining personnel or effectively replacing current personnel who may depart with qualified or effective successors.

In addition, as a result of the intense competition for qualified human resources, the Israeli high-tech market has also experienced and may continue to experience significant wage inflation. Accordingly, our efforts to attract, retain and develop personnel may also result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability. Furthermore, in making employment decisions, particularly in the high-technology industry, job candidates often consider the value of the equity they are to receive in connection with their employment. Employees may be more likely to leave us if the shares they own or the shares underlying their equity incentive awards have significantly appreciated or significantly decreased in value. Many of our employees may receive significant proceeds from sales of our equity in the public markets, which may reduce their motivation to continue to work for us and could heighten the risk of employee attrition. Conversely, if the value of our ordinary shares depreciates in value then this too could heighten the risk of employee attrition.

While we utilize non-competition agreements with our employees as a means of improving our employee retention, those agreements may not be effective towards that goal. These agreements prohibit our employees, if they cease working for us, from competing directly with us or working for our competitors for a limited period. We may be unable to enforce these agreements under Israeli law and in other jurisdictions in which we operate, and it may be difficult for us to restrict our competitors from benefiting from the expertise our former employees developed while working for us.

In light of the foregoing, there can be no assurance that qualified employees will remain in our employ or that we will be able to attract and retain qualified personnel in the future. Failure to retain or attract qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have a credit facility secured by substantially all of our assets under which we have borrowed and may in the future borrow additional amounts; any indebtedness thereunder could adversely affect our financial position and our ability to raise additional capital and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations.
On December 30, 2020, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, which was amended by a Loan Modification Agreement, dated as of November 13, 2022 (the “LSA”). The credit facility has an available borrowing capacity of (a) the lesser of (i) $75 million or (ii) the amount available under the borrowing base, minus (b) the outstanding principal balance of any advances made under the credit facility. The borrowing base is the product of (a) monthly recurring revenue, as defined in the LSA, multiplied by (b) an advance rate as set forth in the LSA. As of December 31, 2023, the outstanding indebtedness under the LSA was $25.0 million. Any future indebtedness incurred under the LSA may:


30


limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
require us to use a portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments instead of for other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flow available for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as borrowings under the LSA are subject to interest at the greater of (i) a floating per annum rate equal to 0.25% above the prime rate, or (ii) a fixed per annum rate equal to 3.50%, also paid on a monthly basis;
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic, competitive and industry conditions; and
increase our cost of borrowing.
The credit facility is secured by substantially all of our assets. In addition, the LSA contains, and the agreements governing our future indebtedness may contain, restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. These restrictive covenants include, among others, financial reporting requirements and limitations on indebtedness, liens, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, sales of assets, dividends and other restricted payments, investments (including acquisitions) and transactions with affiliates. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our debt. Under the LSA, we are also required to maintain liquidity of at least $35 million.

On March 10, 2023, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation shut down SVB, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) was appointed as receiver of SVB. Following this, the FDIC transferred all the deposits, both insured and uninsured, of SVB to Silicon Valley Bridge Bank, N.A. On March 14, 2023, the Bridge Bank published a notice that stated that it had fully stepped into the shoes of SVB and that all commitments to advance under existing credit agreements will be honored in accordance with and pursuant to the terms thereof. All obligations of the Bridge Bank are backed by the FDIC and the full faith and credit of the US government. Based on the Bridge Bank’s published statements, we believe that our SVB credit facility has been assumed by the Bridge Bank and is therefore operational, and we have drawn upon it in accordance with its existing terms. However, in the event that our deposits with the Bridge Bank are no longer backed by the FDIC and the full faith and credit of the US government, or the Bridge Bank discontinues the LSA, and the credit facility thereunder, or the credit facility becomes unavailable for some other reason, we may need to seek an alternative source of credit facility. In the event that we cannot secure a competitive and/or comparable credit facility to the LSA, we would need to use our current cash balances to support our day-to-day business operations, which could adversely affect certain growth strategies or potential future acquisitions and our perceived liquidity and financial stability by customers, partners and investors, which may reduce the value of our ordinary shares. In addition, even if credit is made available, lenders may seek more restrictive covenants and higher interest rates that may reduce our borrowing capacity, increase our costs, and reduce our operating flexibility.

The LSA expires on December 31, 2024. In the event that we are unable to renew or extend the term of the LSA on similar terms or if the terms and covenants of the LSA are less favorable than those of the current LSA , we may need to seek an alternative source of credit facility. In the event that we cannot secure a competitive and/or comparable credit facility to the LSA, we would need to use our current cash balances to support our day-to-day business operations, which could adversely affect certain growth strategies or potential future acquisitions and our perceived liquidity and financial stability by customers, partners and investors, which may reduce the value of our ordinary shares. In addition, even if credit is made available, lenders may seek more restrictive covenants and higher interest rates that may reduce our borrowing capacity, increase our costs, and reduce our operating flexibility.






31


Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.
Historically, we have funded our operations and capital expenditures primarily through equity issuances, borrowings under our credit facilities and cash payments from our customers. Although we currently anticipate that our existing cash and cash equivalents and cash flow from operations and under our credit facility will be sufficient to meet our cash needs for the foreseeable future, we may require additional financing, and we may not be able to obtain debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise equity financing to fund operations or on an opportunistic basis, our shareholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:
develop new features, capabilities and enhancements;
continue to expand our solution development, sales and marketing organizations;
expand internationally;
hire, train and retain employees;
respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements; or
pursue acquisition opportunities.

Risks Relating to Our Intellectual Property and Technology
Any failure to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property rights could impair our competitive position and ability to generate revenue and cause us to lose valuable assets.
Our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, including those in our proprietary technology, know-how and brand. We rely on a combination of trademark, trade secret, patent, copyright and other intellectual property laws, as well as contractual restrictions, and confidentiality procedures to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate to prevent infringement, misappropriation, dilution or other violation of our intellectual property rights.
We will not be able to protect our intellectual property rights if we are unable to enforce our rights or if we do not detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights. Policing unauthorized use of our know-how, technology and intellectual property is difficult, costly, time-consuming and may not be effective. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for unauthorized third parties to copy our solutions and platform capabilities and use information that we regard as proprietary to create solutions that compete with ours. If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, our competitors and other third parties may gain access to our proprietary technology and develop and commercialize substantially identical solutions, services or technologies, which can harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In addition, defending our intellectual property rights might entail significant expense. Any patents, registered trademarks, or other intellectual property rights that we have or may obtain may be challenged or circumvented by others or invalidated or held unenforceable through administrative processes, including opposition, cancellation, re-examination, inter partes review, interference and derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions or litigation.
Circumstances outside our control could also pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret and other intellectual property protection may not be available to us in every country in which our solutions are available. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate. As we expand, our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our solutions and platform capabilities and proprietary information will likely increase. Moreover, policing unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets, and intellectual property may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States and where mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be weak. Changes in the law or adverse court rulings may also negatively affect our ability to prevent others from using our technology.


32


We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and enter into confidentiality agreements with other third parties with whom we share our confidential information, including suppliers and other partners. However, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with every party that has or may have had access to our proprietary information, know-how and trade secrets. These agreements may not effectively grant all necessary rights to any inventions that may have been developed by the employees or consultants party thereto. Moreover, no assurance can be given that these agreements will be effective in controlling access to, distribution, use, misuse, misappropriation, reverse engineering or disclosure of our proprietary information, know-how, trade secrets and our confidential information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized use of our proprietary information, know-how or trade secrets or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of our confidential information. Some of the provisions of our agreements that protect us against unauthorized use, copying, transfer, and disclosure of our platform, may be unenforceable under the laws of certain jurisdictions and foreign countries. Further, these agreements may not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our solutions and platform capabilities. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to copy or obtain and use our technology to develop applications with the same functionality as our solutions. Additionally, these agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. Any unauthorized disclosure or use of our trade secrets or other confidential proprietary information could make it more expensive to do business, thereby harming our operating results.
The value of our intellectual property could diminish if others assert rights in or ownership of our trademarks and other intellectual property rights, or trademarks that are similar to our trademarks. We may be unable to successfully resolve these types of conflicts to our satisfaction. We may also be required to spend significant resources to monitor, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming, and distracting to management, and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Further, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our solutions and platform capabilities, impair the functionality of our solutions and platform capabilities, delay introductions of new solutions, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our solutions, or injure our reputation.
We may become subject to intellectual property disputes, which are costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.
We may become subject to intellectual property disputes. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our solutions and services without infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties. However, we may not be aware that our solutions or services are infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating third-party intellectual property rights and such third parties may bring claims alleging such infringement, misappropriation, dilution or violation. Lawsuits are time-consuming and expensive to resolve, and they divert management’s time and attention. Companies in the software industry are often required to defend against litigation claims based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, dilution or other violations of intellectual property rights. Third parties may assert intellectual property claims against us, and we may be subject to liability, required to enter into costly license agreements, or required to rebrand or redesign our solutions and/or prevented from selling some of our solutions if third parties successfully oppose or challenge our trademarks or successfully claim that we infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their trademarks or other intellectual property rights. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third-party claims against their use. In addition, many companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. We do not currently have a large patent portfolio, which could prevent us from deterring patent infringement claims through our own patent portfolio, and our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. There also may be pending patent applications, of which we are not aware, that may result in issued patents, which could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or solutions. Any litigation may also involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners that have no relevant solution revenue, and therefore, our patent applications may provide little or no deterrence as we would not be able to assert them against such entities or individuals. If a third party is able to obtain an injunction preventing us from accessing such third-party intellectual property rights, or if we cannot license or develop alternative technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our solutions and platform capabilities or cease business activities related to such intellectual property.
33


Although we carry general liability insurance, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type or may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed. There is a risk that our operations, platforms and services may infringe or otherwise violate, or be alleged to infringe or otherwise violate, the intellectual property rights of third parties. We cannot predict the outcome of lawsuits and cannot ensure that the results of any such actions will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Any intellectual property litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, regardless of the merit of the claim or our defenses, may require us to do one or more of the following:
cease selling or using solutions or services that incorporate the intellectual property rights that we allegedly infringe, misappropriate, dilute or violate;
make payment of substantial royalty or license fees, lost profits or other damages;
make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;
indemnify our platform users or third-party service providers;
obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, to sell or use the relevant technology; or
redesign or rebrand our allegedly infringing solutions to avoid infringement, misappropriation, dilution or violation of third-party intellectual property rights, which could be costly, time-consuming or impossible.
Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business and operating results. Moreover, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares. We expect that the occurrence of infringement claims is likely to grow as the market for our platform and solutions grows. Accordingly, our exposure to damages resulting from infringement claims could increase and this could further exhaust our financial and management resources.
We may become subject to claims for remuneration or royalties for assigned service invention rights by our employees, which could result in litigation and would adversely affect our business.
A significant portion of our intellectual property is developed in Israel and has been developed by our employees in the course of their employment for us. Under the Israeli Patents Law, 5727-1967, or the Patents Law, inventions conceived by an employee in the course and as a result of or arising from his or her employment with a company are regarded as “service inventions,” which belong to the employer, absent a specific agreement between the employee and employer giving the employee service invention rights. The Patents Law also provides that if there is no such agreement between an employer and an employee, the Israeli Compensation and Royalties Committee, or the Royalties Committee, a body constituted under the Patents Law, shall determine whether the employee is entitled to remuneration for his or her inventions. Case law clarifies that the right to receive consideration for “service inventions” can be waived by the employee and that in certain circumstances, such waiver does not necessarily have to be explicit. The Royalties Committee will examine, on a case-by-case basis, the general contractual framework between the parties, applying interpretation rules of the general Israeli contract laws. Further, the Royalties Committee has not yet determined one specific formula for calculating this remuneration, but rather uses the criteria specified in the Patents Law. Although we generally enter into assignment-of-invention agreements with our employees pursuant to which such individuals assign to us all rights to any inventions created in the scope of their employment or engagement with us, we may face claims demanding remuneration in consideration for assigned inventions. As a consequence of such claims, we could be required to pay additional remuneration or royalties to our current and former employees, or be forced to litigate such claims, which could negatively affect our business.




34


We use open source software, which could negatively affect our ability to offer our solutions and subject us to litigation or other actions.
We use software licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses in connection with the development or deployment of our proprietary platform and solutions and expect to continue to use open source software in the future. Some open source licenses contain express requirements, which may be triggered under certain circumstances, that licensees make available source code for modifications or derivative works created, or prohibit such modifications or derivative works from being licensed for a fee. Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our platform to such requirements, there are uncertainties regarding the proper interpretation of and compliance with open source licenses, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to use such open source software, and consequently to develop, provide or distribute our proprietary platform and solutions. We may from time to time face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or seeking to enforce the terms of, an open source license, including by demanding release of source code for the open source software, derivative works or our proprietary source code that was developed using or that is distributed with such open source software. These claims could also result in litigation and could require us to make our proprietary software source code freely available, require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our platform, seek costly licenses from third parties or otherwise incur additional costs and expenses, any of which could result in reputational harm and would have a negative effect on our business and operating results.
In addition, if the license terms for the open source software we utilize change, we may be forced to reengineer our platform or incur additional costs to comply with the changed license terms or to replace the affected open source software. Further, use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties or controls on the origin or quality of the software or indemnification for third-party infringement claims. To the extent that our platform depends upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in open source software that we use could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our systems and injure our reputation. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our platform. Additionally, although use of open source software has historically been free, recently several open source providers have begun to charge license fees for use of their software. If our current open source providers were to begin to charge for these licenses or increase their license fees significantly, this would increase our research and development costs and have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Our implementation and use of artificial intelligence, large language models and machine learning technologies may not be successful, which may impair our ability to compete effectively, result in reputational harm and have an adverse effect on our business.
We use machine learning, artificial intelligence and automated decision making technologies throughout our business, and are making significant investments to continuously improve our use of such technologies. As with many technological innovations, there are significant risks and challenges involved in developing, maintaining and deploying these technologies and there can be no assurance that the usage of such technologies will always enhance our products or services or be beneficial to our business, including our efficiency or profitability.
Further, changes and ongoing development in how we use artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies including generative artificial intelligence and large language models, and how we train our models, in particular if those artificial intelligence, large language models or machine learning technologies are (i) incorrectly designed or implemented; (ii) trained or reliant on incomplete, inadequate, inaccurate, biased or otherwise poor quality data; and/ or (iii) are adversely impacted by unforeseen defects, technical challenges, cybersecurity threats or material performance issues, the performance of our platform and business, as well as our reputation and the reputations of our customers and partners, could suffer or we could incur liability through the violation of laws or contracts to which we are a party or through civil claims.


35


The market for artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies, particularly generative artificial intelligence and large language models, and solutions based on such technologies, is rapidly evolving and remains unproven in many industries, including our own. We cannot be sure that the market will continue to grow or that it will grow in ways we anticipate. We are in varying stages of development in relation to our products or services which utilize generative artificial intelligence, large language models and other machine learning technologies, and we may not be successful in our ongoing development of products and services utilizing these technologies in the face of novel and evolving technical, reputational and market factors. Our failure to successfully develop and commercialize our products or services which utilize proprietary machine learning, large language models and artificial intelligence technologies could depress the market price of our stock and impair our ability to (i) raise capital; (ii) expand our business; (iii) provide, improve and diversify our product offerings; (iv) continue our operations and efficiently manage our operating expenses; and (v) respond effectively to competitive developments.
The continuous development, maintenance and operation of our artificial intelligence, large language models and machine learning technologies, and products and services utilizing these technologies, is expensive and complex, and may involve unforeseen difficulties including material performance problems, undetected defects or errors. We may encounter technical obstacles, and it is possible that we may discover additional problems that may prevent our proprietary technologies from operating properly, which could adversely affect our business, customer relationships and reputation.
We face significant competition from other companies in our industry in relation to the development and deployment of artificial intelligence, large language models and machine learning technologies and/or products and services utilizing these technologies. Those other companies may develop artificial intelligence technologies, or products or services utilizing these technologies, that are similar or superior to ours and/or are more cost-effective and/or quicker to develop and deploy. If we cannot develop, offer or deploy new artificial intelligence, large language models or machine learning technologies, or products or services utilizing these technologies, as effectively, as quickly and/or as cost-efficiently as our competitors, we could experience a material adverse effect on our operating results of operation, customer relationships and growth.
Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.
Our agreements with our platform customers and other third parties may include indemnification or other provisions under which we agree to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, damages caused by us to property or persons, or other liabilities relating to or arising from our platform, solutions or other acts or omissions. For some of our larger customers, we sometimes negotiate additional indemnification for breaches of our obligations, representations or warranties in the subscription agreement, gross negligence or willful misconduct, breaches of confidentiality, losses related to security incidents, breach of the data processing addendum or violations of applicable law. The term of these contractual provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments or damage claims from contractual breach could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
From time to time, third parties may assert intellectual property infringement claims against our platform customers. These claims may require us to initiate or defend protracted and costly litigation on behalf of our customers, regardless of the merits of these claims. If any of these claims succeed, we may be forced to pay damages on behalf of our customers or may be required to obtain costly licenses from third parties for the platform or solutions they use or modify our platform or solutions to be non-infringing or resolve a claim of infringement. If we cannot obtain all necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms or make such modifications to avoid a claim, our customers may be forced to stop using our platform or solutions. Further, our customers may require us to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for breach of confidentiality or failure to implement adequate security measures with respect to their data stored, transmitted or processed by our employees, platform or solutions. Although we normally contractually limit our liability with respect to such obligations, we may still incur substantial liability related to them. Any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could have adverse effects on our relationship with that customer and other current and prospective customers, reduce demand for our platform or solutions and harm our revenue, business and operating results.



36


Risks Relating to Regulatory Compliance and Legal Matters
Changes in laws, regulations and public perception concerning data privacy and cybersecurity, or changes in the patterns of enforcement of existing laws and regulations, could impact our ability to gather, process, update the data that we use to generate our solutions and/or provide some or all of our solutions. Furthermore, our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.
Our ability to operate our business and provide our services relies heavily on the collection and use of information. In recent years, there has been an increase in attention to and regulation of data protection and data privacy across the globe. We are subject to a variety of laws, directives and regulations relating to the collection, use, retention, security, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, the EU e-Privacy Directive, and new state privacy laws such as the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, or VCDPA, and the Colorado Privacy Act, or CPA, the latter of which are expected to take effect in 2023. Other data privacy or data protection laws or regulations are under consideration in other jurisdictions, including in Israel, where we are incorporated. Laws such as these give rise to an increasingly complex set of compliance obligations on us. These laws impose restrictions on our ability to gather data we require in order to provide our products to our customers.
These laws set out extensive compliance requirements, including providing detailed disclosures about how personal data is collected and processed; demonstrating that an appropriate legal basis is in place or otherwise exists to justify data processing activities; granting new rights for data subjects in regard to their personal data (including rights to consent, limit or opt-out of certain processing of personal data, the right to access, correct or delete personal data, and the right to data portability); notifying affected individuals, data protection regulators or supervisory authorities of data incidents or security breaches; defining requirements in connection with deidentified, aggregated or pseudonymized (i.e., key-coded) data; imposing limitations on retention, use and sale or sharing of personal data; restricting the collection of data via cookies or other online tracking tools; maintaining a record of data processing and/or conducting data risk assessments; and complying with various privacy principles and the obligation to demonstrate compliance through written policies, procedures, trainings and audits.
Concern regarding our use of the personal data we collect could keep prospective customers from subscribing to our services or could limit our ability to maintain and grow our contributory network. Industry-wide incidents or incidents with respect to our practices, including misappropriation of third-party information, security breaches, or changes in industry standards, regulations, or laws, together with more active regulatory enforcement from privacy authorities could deter people from using the B2C products that we rely upon to grow and maintain our contributory network, or from using the internet, our solutions and/or our B2C products, which could harm our business.
In addition, the processes we use to deidentify, aggregate or pseudonymize data or to clean data such as by identifying and removing potentially personal data from URLs may prove to be insufficient under applicable data protection laws.
We also receive data from third-party sources (e.g., other data providers). We must rely on our data providers to ensure that personal data was collected and is being shared with us for our use in compliance with all applicable data privacy laws and contractual obligations and with appropriate notices and consents in place. Furthermore, we use third-party service providers some of which process personal data on our behalf.
We maintain policies concerning the collection, processing, use and retention of information, including personal data and, where appropriate, we publicly post documentation regarding our practices concerning the collection, processing, use and disclosure of personal data. Although we endeavor to comply with our policies, we may at times fail to do so or be subject to a claim alleging our failure to do so. Any such non-compliance can subject us to potential governmental action, class action lawsuits, private rights of action or third-party claims.




37


Given the nature of our business and the fact that we do not always have a direct relationship with the relevant data subject, it can be difficult for us to ensure that individuals are aware of such policies or our processing of the personal data at the point of data collection. As such, we may be subject to complaints from individuals, third-parties or regulators for failing to meet the necessary transparency obligations under applicable data privacy laws. The publication of our privacy policy and other documentation that provide information about our privacy and security practices can subject us to potential state and federal action in the United States and elsewhere if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or a misrepresentation of our actual practices. Any failure by us, our suppliers or other parties with whom we do business to comply with this documentation or with federal, state, or local laws in the United States or international regulations, could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In many jurisdictions, enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance are rising. In the United States, these include enforcement actions in response to rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of federal agencies and state attorneys general and legislatures and consumer protection agencies. In addition, privacy advocates and industry groups have regularly proposed, and may propose in the future, self-regulatory standards with which we must legally comply or that contractually apply to us. If we fail to follow these standards even if no user information is compromised, we may incur significant fines, adverse publicity, or experience a significant increase in costs.
Certain of our activities could be found by a government or regulatory authority to be noncompliant or become noncompliant in the future with one or more data protection or data privacy laws, even if we have implemented and maintained a strategy that we believe to be compliant. For example, we process some personal data collected in the EU pursuant to the legitimate interest provision under the GDPR. However, regulators may disagree with our application of this basis for data collection and processing and find that our data collection and processing has violated the GDPR or find that we have not sufficiently justified use of the provision.
Certain data privacy laws impose sanctions for violations. For example, GDPR imposes a reprimand, a temporary or definitive ban on processing and/or a fine of up to €20 million or 4% of the business’s total annual worldwide turnover. Furthermore, new interpretations of existing data protection laws or regulations could be inconsistent with our interpretations, increase our compliance burden, make it more difficult to comply and/or increase our risk of regulatory investigations and fines. For example, we are subject to complex and evolving regulatory requirements regarding the collection, sharing and use of personal data, including recently enacted and upcoming state laws such as the CCPA, the CPRA, VCDPA, and CPA and pending bills that may pass in other jurisdictions, related to collection and selling of personal data. We may also be subject to laws and regulations, including the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications (in the EU), or the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (in the US), applying to the processing of personal data in the context of marketing, advertising, and other communications with individuals.
Complying with applicable data protection laws may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices. Despite our efforts to bring practices into compliance with these laws, we may not be successful in our efforts to achieve compliance either due to internal or external factors such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. Non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, users, data subjects or others. We may also experience difficulty retaining or obtaining new European or multi-national users due to the legal requirements, compliance cost, potential risk exposure, and uncertainty for these entities, and we may experience significantly increased liability with respect to these users pursuant to the terms set forth in our engagements with them.
Additionally, many U.S. state legislatures have adopted legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy, data security, data breaches, and data brokers. Laws in all 50 states require businesses to provide notice to users whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. The laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. Penalties for the failure to adequately protect personal information, notify as required or provide timely notice vary by jurisdiction. In the U.S., most state data breach notification laws consider violations to be unfair or deceptive trade practices and give the applicable state attorney general authority to levy fines or bring enforcement actions. States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements. Furthermore, additional states have passed or introduced pending legislation, which marks the beginning of a trend toward more stringent United States privacy legislation, which could increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business.


38


Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws along with contractually imposed industry standards are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data processing practices or the features of our solutions and platform capabilities. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, other claims and penalties, and significant costs for remediation and damage to our reputation, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our solutions and platform capabilities, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other requirements imposed by, the laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our users may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our solutions. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our solutions, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations, and standards related to the internet, our business may be harmed. Future legal requirements could reduce demand for our services, require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to store, transfer and process personal and other data or, in some cases, impact our ability to offer our services in certain locations, to deploy our solutions, to reach current and prospective customers, or to derive insights from data globally.
Recent legal developments in Europe have created complexity and uncertainty regarding transfers of personal data from the European Economic Area (“EEA”) to the United States. Most recently, on July 16, 2020, in a case known as Schrems II, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield Framework under which personal data could be transferred from the EEA to U.S. entities who had self-certified under the Privacy Shield scheme. While the CJEU upheld the adequacy of the standard contractual clauses (a standard form of contract approved by the European Commission as an adequate personal data transfer mechanism, and potential alternative to the Privacy Shield), it made clear that reliance on them alone may not necessarily be sufficient in all circumstances. Use of the standard contractual clauses must now be assessed on a case-by-case basis taking into account the legal regime applicable in the destination country, in particular applicable surveillance laws and rights of individuals and additional measures and/or contractual provisions may need to be put in place, however, the nature of these additional measures is currently uncertain. There are few viable alternatives to the standard contractual clauses, and the law in this area remains dynamic. These recent developments require us to review and amend the legal mechanisms by which we make and/or receive personal data transfers from EEA and UK to the United States and other countries outside Europe. As supervisory authorities issue further guidance on personal data export mechanisms, including supplementary measures for standard contractual clauses to remain a valid data transfer mechanism, and/or start taking enforcement action, we could suffer additional costs, complaints and/or regulatory investigations or fines, and/or if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the manner in which we provide our solutions, the geographical location or segregation of our relevant systems and operations, may reduce demand for our solutions from companies subject to European data protection laws and could adversely affect our financial results.
Compliance with any of the foregoing laws and regulations (including as subsequently interpreted) can be costly and can delay or impede the development of new products or services. We may incur substantial fines if we violate any laws or regulations relating to the collection or use of personal data. Such penalties may be in addition to any civil litigation claims by users and data subjects. Our actual or alleged failure to comply with applicable privacy or data security laws, regulations, and policies, or to protect personal data, could result in legal actions by private actors, enforcement actions by governmental entities and significant penalties against us, which could result in negative publicity or costs, subject us to claims or other remedies, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.






39


Changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in the Internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our solutions and could harm our business.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the Internet as a primary medium for commerce, communication, and business applications. Federal or state governments in the United States, or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the Internet as a commercial medium. The adoption of any laws or regulations that could reduce the growth, popularity, or use of the Internet, including laws or practices limiting Internet neutrality, could decrease the supply of data upon which our business model relies, which would increase our cost of doing business and harm our results of operations. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our platform and solutions, or certain aspects of our solutions, in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees, or other charges for accessing the Internet or commerce conducted via the Internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of Internet-related commerce or communications or result in reductions in the demand for Internet-based solutions such as ours. In addition, the use of the Internet as a business tool could be harmed due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility and quality of service. Further, we depend on the quality of our customers’ access to the Internet. Certain features of our platform require significant bandwidth and fidelity to work effectively. Internet access is frequently provided by companies that have significant market power that could take actions that degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of customer access to our platform, which would negatively impact our business. The performance of the Internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been harmed by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs and the Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the Internet is adversely affected by these issues, demand for our platform and solutions could decline.
Furthermore, federal or state governments in the United States, or foreign government bodies or agencies, have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations requiring the inclusion of features and design elements in websites and online services and platforms to enhance their accessibility, including for people with disabilities. These laws and regulations could require us to modify our websites, platform and solutions, which could increase our cost of doing business and harm our results of operations.
Changes in regulation or enhanced enforcement of existing laws and regulation regarding the practice of automated data collection could increase our exposure to legal action such as financial penalties. Furthermore, website proprietors could assert claims for breach of their terms and conditions and/or increase their use of technological barriers to protect against automated data collection, which may impact our ability to gather data from a range of sources.
Our business relies in large part on the practice of automated data collection to gather data from third-party websites, and any limitation on our ability to collect data this way could significantly diminish the value of our services and cause us to lose clients and revenue. Such automated data collection creates various legal risks including intellectual property right infringement, breach of contract and infringement of certain laws directed to protect against unauthorized access to computer material such as the United Kingdom Computer Misuse Act 1990 and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, or CFAA. Shifts in the legal enforcement and public perception of automated data collection could significantly impact our ability to gather data this way.
Our collection via this method is limited to publicly available information. However, many third-party websites may seek to restrict our ability to utilize these data collection methods to collect information from their websites both through operational or technological measures as well as through legal action. Any such restriction on our use, whether due to operational or technological measures deployed by third parties or to legal actions, would reduce the amount of data we acquire and could therefore negatively affect our products and therefore our business. In addition, we would likely need to invest considerable resources and suffer potential business interruption in identifying and acquiring the same or similar data through alternate means.




40


We may also automatically collect and gather data from third-party websites that upon discovering our practice will send us a letter demanding that we stop such practice. If we continue to collect data, we may face claims of breach of the website’s terms or violations of other laws. Specifically, the CFAA and the Computer Misuse Act 1990 impose liability on individuals or entities that intentionally access a computer without authorization or exceed authorized access. In some jurisdictions, the CFAA has been successfully used to hold companies liable for exceeding their authorized access where the company continues to collect data from another company’s website despite the company demanding they stop or terminating the governing terms of service. If a Court holds that a company can rely on the CFAA to enforce violations of a demand letter or its terms and conditions, our ability to obtain data could be significantly impacted.
The classification of the actionable insights we provide to customers or the data we acquire and process as material non-public information, or MNPI, could result in a significant increase in the cancellation or non-renewal of customer agreements and could therefore adversely impact our business.
Information may be considered MNPI for securities law purposes due to various factors including whether that information is obtained in an unlawful manner. The SEC is increasingly focusing on the use of alternative data, or data sets comprised of information about a particular company that is published by sources outside of the company, which can provide unique and timely insights into investment opportunities such as the data we provide as part of our investor intelligence solution. Specifically, the SEC is focusing on whether investment funds have received MNPI from an alternative data vendor and on whether the fund has and enforces policies and procedures designed to address the MNPI and other risks posed by the use of alternative data. To date, there is limited case law or regulatory guidance with respect to the classification of alternative data as MNPI. In light of this heightened regulatory focus and legal uncertainty, current and potential investment fund and other customers are conducting rigorous due diligence reviews of our data acquisition processes and regulatory compliance both at the on-boarding stage and subsequently on an ongoing basis. We cannot guaranty that our data acquisition processes and regulatory compliance efforts will be sufficient to meet the requirements of existing or potential customers or regulatory standards. Failure to meet those requirements or standards could result in an increase in the cancellation or non-renewal of customer agreements and negatively affect our revenue.
Furthermore, if the actionable insights we provide to customers, especially to purchasers of our investor intelligence solutions, or the data we acquire and process were to be classified as MNPI by securities regulators, including the SEC, many of those customers would most likely cease to purchase that solution, and we could be exposed to direct legal actions and/or penalties from regulatory authorities. In that event we would likely need to invest considerable resources and suffer potential business interruption in making changes to our solutions to remove the relevant information deemed to be MNPI.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal penalties or significant fines and harm our business and reputation.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, Chapter 9 (sub-chapter 5) of the Israeli Penal Law, 1977, the Israeli Prohibition on Money Laundering Law–2000 and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies, their officers, directors, employees and business partners, including agents from promising, authorizing, making, offering, or providing anything of value to recipients in the public or private sector for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business, or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA further requires us to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of internal accounting controls. The UK Bribery Act 2010 also prohibits “commercial” bribery not involving government officials, and accepting bribes, and requires companies to implement adequate procedures to prevent bribery. Our efforts to comply with these laws, including with respect to the screening of customers and vendors, are ongoing. As we increase our international sales and business, our risks under these laws may increase. Noncompliance with these laws could subject us to investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, adverse media coverage and other consequences. Any investigations, actions or sanctions could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.

41


In addition, we currently use third parties to sell access to our platform and conduct business on our behalf abroad. We and such third-party intermediaries, have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities, and we can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of such future third-party intermediaries, and our employees, representatives, contractors, partners and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. While we have policies, internal controls and procedures to address compliance with anti-corruption laws, there is a risk that our employees, agents, or business partners may take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. Any such improper actions or allegations of such acts could subject us to significant sanctions, including civil or criminal fines and penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and debarment from government contracts, as well as related stockholder lawsuits and other remedial measures, all of which could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Any violation of the FCPA or other applicable anti-corruption laws or anti-money laundering laws could also result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, any of which could have a materially adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and prospects.
Our international operations require us to comply with trade restrictions, such as economic sanctions laws and regulations of the United States and applicable international jurisdictions.
Our business must be conducted in compliance with applicable economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations, such as those administered and enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Israeli Ministry of Finance, and other relevant authorities. Such laws and regulations restrict or prohibit the export or provision of certain products and services to certain countries, regions, governments, and persons targeted by sanctions.
Our global operations expose us to the risk of violating, or being accused of violating, economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations may expose us to reputational harm as well as significant penalties, including criminal fines, imprisonment, civil fines, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and debarment from government contracts, as well as other remedial measures. Investigations of alleged violations can be expensive and disruptive. Despite our compliance efforts and activities we cannot assure compliance by our employees or representatives for which we may be held responsible, and any such violation could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We believe that we operate within the structures of applicable trade restrictions. However, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our operations might become subject. We also cannot predict the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted. Future regulations could limit the countries in which some of our products may be developed, exported or sold, or could restrict our access to, or increase the cost of obtaining, products from foreign sources. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Action by governments to restrict access to our solutions in their countries or to require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
We depend on the ability of our customers to access the Internet and our platform could be blocked or restricted in some countries for various reasons. Further, it is possible that governments of one or more foreign countries may seek to limit access to our solutions or certain features of ours in their countries, or impose other restrictions that may affect the availability of our platform, or certain features of our platform, in their countries for an extended period of time or indefinitely. In addition, governments in certain countries may seek to restrict or prohibit access to our website if they consider us to be in violation of their laws and may require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession. If we fail to anticipate developments in the law, or fail for any reason to comply with relevant law, our website could be further blocked or restricted and we could be exposed to significant liability that could harm our business. In the event that access to our website is restricted, in whole or in part, in one or more countries or our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic markets that we are restricted from accessing, our ability to grow or maintain our NRR may be adversely affected, we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue as anticipated and our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.

42



Sales to government entities and highly regulated organizations are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
We currently sell, and may continue to sell in the future, to U.S. federal, state and local, as well as foreign, governmental agency customers, as well as to customers in highly regulated industries such as financial services, telecommunications and healthcare. Sales to such entities are subject to a number of challenges and risks. Selling to such entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time-consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. Government contracting requirements may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the government sector until we meet the specific requirements or certifications required for the particular project. Government demand and payment for our solutions are affected by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our solutions.
Further, governmental and highly regulated entities may demand contract terms that differ from our standard arrangements and are less favorable than terms agreed with private sector customers. Such entities may have statutory, contractual, or other legal rights to terminate contracts with us or our partners for convenience or for other reasons. Any such termination may adversely affect our ability to contract with other government customers as well as our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
As the regulatory framework for machine learning technology and artificial intelligence evolves, including with respect to unintentional bias and discrimination, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our business increasingly relies on artificial intelligence, machine learning and automated decision making. The regulatory framework for this technology is rapidly evolving, and we may not always be able to anticipate how to respond to these laws or regulations. Many federal, state and foreign government bodies and agencies have introduced or are currently considering additional laws and regulations governing the use of such technologies. There is also an increase in litigation in a number of jurisdictions, including the United States, relating to the development, security and use of artificial intelligence. In October 2023, President Biden issued the Executive Order on Safe, Secure and Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence (“The Order”) with the goal of promoting the “safe, secure, and trustworthy development and use of artificial intelligence in the United States.” The Order has established certain new standards for the training, testing and cybersecurity of sophisticated artificial intelligence models, and the Order has also instructed other federal agencies to promulgate additional regulations within certain timeframes from the date of the Order. Federal artificial intelligence legislation has also been introduced in the U.S. Senate. Such additional regulations may impact our ability to develop, use and commercialize artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies in the future. Additionally, in December 2023, new laws regulating artificial intelligence have been enacted in China, and the European Parliament and Council reached a political agreement on the European Union's Artificial Intelligence Act (the “EU AI Act”), which seeks to create a comprehensive legal framework for the regulation of artificial intelligence systems across the EU. The final text of the EU AI Act is expected to be published in early 2024 with the majority of obligations expected to take effect by 2026 , including requirements around transparency, conformity assessments and monitoring, risk assessments, human oversight, security, accuracy, general purpose artificial intelligence and foundation models, and fines for breach of up to 7% of worldwide annual turnover. Once fully applicable, the EU AI Act will have a material impact on the way artificial intelligence is regulated in the EU, including requirements around transparency, conformity assessments and monitoring, risk assessments, human oversight, security, accuracy, general purpose artificial intelligence and foundation models, and fines for breach of up to 7% of worldwide annual turnover. In 2022 and 2023, China implemented a number of regulations to govern generative artificial intelligence, algorithmic recommendation and deep synthesis technologies, namely the Interim Provisions on Management of Generative Artificial Intelligence Services, Administrative Provisions on Algorithm Recommendation for Internet Information Services and Provisions on Management of Deep Synthesis in Internet Information Service, respectively. Such regulations impose strict obligations on service providers, among other entities, with respect to their provision and use of generative artificial intelligence, algorithmic recommendation and deep synthesis technologies. For example, service providers must file the algorithms used and complete a security assessment with the local CAC before the provision of the service. The regulatory framework in China is expected to have a material impact on the way artificial intelligence is regulated in China, and together with developing guidance and/or decisions in this area, may affect our use of artificial intelligence and our ability to provide and to improve our services, require additional compliance measures and changes to our operations and processes, result in increased compliance costs and potential increases in civil claims against us, and could adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition. It is possible that the
43


EU AI Act and the US artificial intelligence framework, along with the adoption of new laws and regulations in other jurisdictions, or the interpretation of existing laws and regulations, may affect the operation of our eCommerce risk intelligence platform and the way in which we use artificial intelligence and machine learning technology, including with respect to how we train our models, unintentional bias and discrimination. Failure to comply with such laws or regulations could subject us to legal or regulatory liability. Further, the cost to comply with such laws or regulations could be significant and would increase our operating expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Relating to Being a Public Company
The requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.
We are required to comply with various corporate governance and financial reporting requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the rules and regulations adopted by the SEC and the Public Corporation Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”). Further, compliance with various regulatory reporting requirements requires significant commitments of time from our management and our directors, which reduces the time available for the performance of their other responsibilities and may also require us to continue to incur significant expenses. Our failure to track and comply with the various rules may materially adversely affect our reputation, ability to obtain the necessary certifications to financial statements, lead to additional regulatory enforcement actions, and could adversely affect the value of our ordinary shares as well as our ability to finance our operations and growth through offerings of our ordinary shares.
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our responsibilities related to our being a public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These obligations and stakeholders require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the listing standards of the New York Stock Exchange. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we will file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting. Ensuring that we have adequate internal disclosure, financial and accounting controls and procedures in place to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be re-evaluated frequently. The rapid growth of our operations creates a need for additional resources within the accounting and finance functions due to the need to produce timely financial information and to ensure the level of segregation of duties customary for a U.S. public company. We continue to assess the sufficiency of finance personnel in response to these increasing demands and expectations.




44


Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our management does not expect that our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. An internal control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that such system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within our company will have been detected. In addition, our current sets of controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in the conditions in our business, including increased complexity resulting from any international expansion, new product offerings, or from strategic transactions, including acquisitions.
In addition to our results determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we believe certain non-GAAP measures and key metrics may be useful in evaluating our operating performance. We present certain non-GAAP financial measures and key performance metrics in this Annual Report and intend to continue to present certain non-GAAP financial measures and key performance metrics in future filings with the SEC and other public statements. Any failure to accurately report and present our non-GAAP financial measures and key performance metrics could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our ordinary shares.
Additionally, we expect to expend significant resources in developing the necessary documentation and testing procedures required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot be certain that the actions we will be taking to improve our internal controls over financial reporting will be sufficient, or that we will be able to implement our planned processes and procedures in a timely manner. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls, or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement, could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could also adversely affect the results of our annual management evaluations regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we are required to include in our annual reports. In addition, if we are unable to produce accurate financial statements and other disclosures on a timely basis, based upon ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and disclosures, which could have material and adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations and may cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline, making it more difficult for us to finance our operations and growth.
We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

As a public company, and particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses to meet reporting, listing and compliance requirements. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and the listing requirements of the NYSE and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel have devoted and we expect will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board.
We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.



45


Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we are required to furnish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we are not required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we have engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to continue to assess and document the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. If we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements. Additionally, as a publicly traded company, we are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302, 906, and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require management to certify financial and other information in our annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of control over financial reporting. We currently have limited accounting personnel and we continue to evaluate the adequacy of our accounting personnel staffing level and other matters related to our internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404. During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our ordinary shares could decline, and we could be subject to penalties or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.    
As a result, the market price of our ordinary shares could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may harm our results of operations.
Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements rules, or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements practice could harm our results of operations or the manner in which we conduct our business. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective.
GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change. As an “emerging growth company,” we are allowed under the JOBS Act to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. Any difficulties in implementing new pronouncements promulgated by the FASB, the SEC or similar bodies could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.





46


If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and related notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, provision for income taxes, uncertain tax positions, share-based compensation, internal-use software costs, purchase price allocation on acquisitions including the determination of useful lives and contingent liabilities. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our ordinary shares.

Risks Relating to Taxes
We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares.
We would be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year if, after the application of certain look-through rules, either: (i) 75% or more of our gross income for such year is “passive income” (as defined in the relevant provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended), or (ii) 50% or more of the value of our assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. Based on the estimated composition of our income, assets and operations, we do not believe that we were classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2023. The determination of whether we are classified as a PFIC is a factual determination that must be made annually after the close of each taxable year. Moreover, this determination will depend on, among other things, the composition of our income and assets, as well as the value of our assets (which for purposes of the PFIC determination may fluctuate with our market capitalization). The United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, or a court may disagree with our expectations. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we were not a PFIC for our 2023 taxable year or will not be classified as a PFIC in the current taxable year or in the future. Certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Material income tax considerations—Material U.S. federal income tax considerations for U.S. holders”) if we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which such U.S. Holder (defined below) holds our ordinary shares, including (1) the treatment of all or a portion of any gain on disposition of our ordinary shares as ordinary income, (2) the application of an interest charge with respect to such gain and certain dividends and (3) compliance with certain reporting requirements.
If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares, such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
Depending upon the aggregate value and voting power of our ordinary shares that United States persons are treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively), we could be treated as a controlled foreign corporation. If a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly, or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares, such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” in our group (if any). Because our group includes a U.S. subsidiary, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries will be treated as controlled foreign corporations (regardless of whether or not we are treated as a controlled foreign corporation). A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to report annually and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income,” and investments of earnings in “United States property” by controlled foreign corporations, regardless of whether we make any distributions of profits or income of a controlled foreign corporation to such United States shareholder. Failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject a United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether we are or any of
47


our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether any investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any such controlled foreign corporation or furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. The IRS has provided limited guidance on situations in which investors may rely on publicly available information to comply with their reporting and taxpaying obligations with respect to foreign-controlled controlled foreign corporations. A United States investor should consult its advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to an investment in our ordinary shares.
Changes in tax laws or regulations in the various tax jurisdictions we are subject to that are applied adversely to us or our paid customers could increase the costs of our solutions and harm our business.
New income, sales, use, value-added or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be enacted at any time. Those enactments could harm our domestic and international business operations, and our business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified, or applied adversely to us. These events could require us or our paid customers to pay additional tax amounts on a prospective or retroactive basis, as well as require us or our paid customers to pay fines and/or penalties and interest for past amounts deemed to be due. If we raise our prices to offset the costs of these changes, existing and potential future paid customers may elect not to purchase our solutions in the future. Additionally, new, changed, modified, or newly interpreted or applied tax laws could increase our paid customers’ and our compliance, operating and other costs, as well as the costs of our solutions. Further, these events could decrease the capital we have available to operate our business. Any or all of these events could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Additionally, the application of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax laws to services provided electronically is unclear and continuously evolving. Existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted or applied adversely to us, possibly with retroactive effect, which could require us or our paid customers to pay additional tax amounts, as well as require us or our paid customers to pay fines or penalties, as well as interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes due from our paid customers, we could be held liable for such costs, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and harming our business.
As a multinational organization, we may be subject to taxation in several jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws, or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, which could harm our liquidity and results of operations. Our existing corporate structure and intercompany arrangements have been implemented in a manner we believe is in compliance with current prevailing tax laws. In addition and in accordance with the domestic statute of limitation provisions, the authorities in these jurisdictions could review our tax returns and impose additional tax, interest and penalties, and the authorities could claim that various withholding requirements apply to us or our subsidiaries or assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us or our subsidiaries, any of which could harm us and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The tax benefits that may be available to us will require us to meet various conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which could increase our costs and taxes.
We may be eligible for certain tax benefits provided to a “Preferred Technological Enterprise” under the Israeli Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 5719-1959, referred to as the Investment Law. However, we have not yet examined our eligibility due to the irrelevance of the Investment Law to us in light of our current loss-making status. In order to be eligible for the tax benefits for a “Preferred Technological Enterprise” we must meet certain conditions stipulated in the Investment Law and its regulations, as amended. If we increase our activities outside of Israel through acquisitions, for example, our expanded activities might not be eligible for inclusion in future Israeli tax benefit programs. See the section 10.E titled “Taxation—Israeli tax considerations.”




48


Our results of operations may be harmed if we are required to collect sales or other related taxes for subscriptions to our solutions in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so.
The application of indirect taxes (such as sales and use tax, VAT, GST, business tax and gross receipt tax) to businesses that transact online, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. An increasing number of states have considered or adopted laws that attempt to impose tax collection obligations on out-of-state companies. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc., states are now free to levy taxes on sales of goods and services based on an “economic nexus,” regardless of whether the seller has a physical presence in the state. As a result, it may be necessary to reevaluate whether our activities give rise to sales, use and other indirect taxes as a result of any nexus in those states in which we are not currently registered to collect and remit taxes. A successful assertion by one or more states requiring us to collect taxes where we presently do not do so, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest. Additionally, we may need to assess our potential tax collection and remittance liabilities based on existing economic nexus laws’ dollar and transaction thresholds. We continue to analyze our exposure for such taxes and liabilities including the need to provide to loss contingencies resulting from these potential taxes and liabilities. The application of existing, new, or future laws, whether in the U.S. or internationally, could harm our business. There have been, and will continue to be, substantial ongoing costs associated with complying with the various indirect tax requirements in the numerous markets in which we conduct or will conduct business.
It is possible, however, that we could face sales tax or VAT audits and that our liability for these taxes could exceed our estimates as state tax authorities could still assert that we are obligated to collect additional tax amounts from our paid customers and remit those taxes to those authorities. We could also be subject to tax audits in states and international jurisdictions for which we have not accrued tax liabilities. A successful assertion that we should be collecting additional sales or other taxes on our services in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so and do not accrue for sales taxes could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales, discourage organizations from subscribing to our solutions, or otherwise harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Our international operations may subject us to potential adverse tax consequences.
We are expanding our international operations to better support our growth into international markets. Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies contemplate future growth in international markets, and consider the functions, risks and assets of the various entities involved in intercompany transactions. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions may depend on the application of the tax laws of the various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies, and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions pursuant to our intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.
The enactment of legislation implementing changes in taxation of international business activities, the adoption of other corporate tax reform policies, or changes in tax legislation or policies could impact our future financial position and results of operations.
Corporate tax reform, base-erosion efforts and tax transparency continue to be high priorities in many tax jurisdictions where we have business operations. As a result, policies regarding corporate income and other taxes in numerous jurisdictions are under heightened scrutiny and tax reform legislation is being proposed or enacted in a number of jurisdictions.
In 2015, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD, released various reports under its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, or BEPS, action plan to reform international tax systems and prevent tax avoidance and aggressive tax planning. These actions aim to standardize and modernize global corporate tax policy, including cross-border taxes, transfer-pricing documentation rules and nexus-based tax incentive practices which in part are focused on challenges arising from the digitalization of the economy. The reports have a very broad scope including, but not limited to, neutralizing the effects of hybrid mismatch arrangements, limiting base erosion involving interest deductions and other financial payments, countering harmful tax practices, preventing the granting
49


of treaty benefits in inappropriate circumstances and imposing mandatory disclosure rules. It is the responsibility of OECD members to consider how the BEPS recommendations should be reflected in their national legislation. Many countries are beginning to implement legislation and other guidance to align their international tax rules with the OECD's BEPS recommendations, for example, by signing up to the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS, or MLI, which currently has been signed by over 95 jurisdictions, including Israel who signed and ratified the MLI on September 13, 2018. The MLI implements some of the measures that the BEPS initiative proposes to be transposed into existing treaties of participating states. Such measures include the inclusion in tax treaties of one, or both, of a “limitation-on-benefit,” or LOB, rule and a “principle purposes test,” or PPT, rule. The application of the LOB rule or the PPT rule could deny the availability of tax treaty benefits (such as a reduced rate of withholding tax) under tax treaties. There are likely to be significant changes in the tax legislation of various OECD jurisdictions during the period of implementation of BEPS. Such legislative initiatives may materially and adversely affect our plans to expand internationally and may negatively impact our financial condition, tax liability, results of operations and could increase our administrative efforts.

Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares
Our share price may be volatile, which may cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
The public trading price of our ordinary shares has been and may continue to be volatile and could be subject to fluctuations in response to various factors, including those listed in this Annual Report, some of which are beyond our control. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our ordinary shares since you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the public trading price of our ordinary shares include the following:
The number of our ordinary shares publicly owned and available for trading;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
volatility in the trading prices and trading volumes of technology stocks;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;
sales or expected sales of our ordinary shares of stock by us or our shareholders;
short-selling of our ordinary shares or related derivative securities;
failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts who follow our company or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
any financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in those projections or our failure to meet those projections;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements, and filings with the SEC;
rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue growth or results of operations;
changes in our net retention rates;
variance in our financial performance from the expectations of market analysts;
announcements by us or our direct or indirect competitors of significant business developments, changes in service provider relationships, acquisitions or expansion plans;
our involvement in litigation;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
future sales of our ordinary shares by us or our shareholders;
market conditions in our industry;
changes in key personnel;
changes in the estimation of the future size and growth rate of our markets; and
general economic, geopolitical, political, and market conditions or events (such as the current conflicts in Ukraine and in Israel);
new laws or regulations, public expectations regarding new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business; and
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;


50


In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company. If we were involved in any similar litigation, we could incur substantial costs and our management’s attention and resources could be diverted.
The concentration of our share ownership with insiders will likely limit your ability to influence corporate matters, including the ability to influence the outcome of director elections and other matters requiring shareholder approval.
Our executive officers, directors, current 5% or greater shareholders and affiliated entities together beneficially owned approximately 59.8% of our ordinary shares outstanding as of February 14, 2024. As a result, these shareholders, acting together, will have control over most matters that require approval by our shareholders, including matters such as, the appointment and dismissal of directors, approval of certain related party transactions, including the terms of compensation of our directors and chief executive officer, capital increases, amendments to our articles of associations, approval of significant corporate transactions and declarations of dividends. Corporate action might be taken even if other shareholders oppose them. This concentration of ownership could also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us that other shareholders may view as beneficial.
Future sales of our ordinary shares in the public market could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our ordinary shares and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Many of our shareholders who held our share capital prior to completion of our IPO have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold based upon the price at which shares were sold in our IPO, and therefore, they may take steps to sell their shares or otherwise secure the unrecognized gains on those shares. We are unable to predict the timing of or the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our ordinary shares.

Additionally, our ordinary shares that are subject to outstanding options and restricted stock unit awards under our equity incentive plans, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market upon issuance, subject to compliance with applicable securities laws. Further, certain holders of our ordinary shares have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other shareholders.
As of December 31, 2023, there were 78,650,878 ordinary shares outstanding. Sales by us or our shareholders of a substantial number of ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline or could impair our ability to raise capital through a future sale of, or pay for acquisitions using, our equity securities. Of our issued and outstanding shares, all of our ordinary shares are freely transferable, except for any shares held by our “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act.
Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, we had 4,982,991 shares available for future grants under our 2021 Plan (which amount increased to 8,915,535 shares as of January 1, 2024 pursuant to the evergreen feature of our 2021 Plan) and 11,354,735 ordinary shares that were subject to outstanding share options and restricted share units, or RSUs. Of this amount, 6,844,376 were vested and exercisable as of December 31, 2023. We filed a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act on May 20, 2021 registering the shares under our equity incentive plans. Shares included in such registration statement are available for sale in the public market following that filing, subject to vesting provisions, except for shares held by affiliates who will have certain restrictions on their ability to sell. See “Shares eligible for future sale.”



51


If we do not meet the expectations of equity research analysts, if they do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue unfavorable commentary or downgrade our ordinary shares, the price of our ordinary shares could decline.
The trading market for our ordinary shares relies in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. The analysts’ estimates are based upon their own opinions and are often different from our estimates or expectations. If our results of operations are below the estimates or expectations of public market analysts and investors, the price of our ordinary shares could decline. Moreover, the price of our ordinary shares could decline if one or more securities analysts downgrade our ordinary shares or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us or our business.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” may make our ordinary shares less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.
For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we also intend to take advantage of certain other exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies including, but not limited to, including (i) presenting only limited selected financial data, (ii) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of SOX, (iii) not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the PCAOB regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, (iv) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and (v) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, the information we provide shareholders will be different than the information that is available with respect to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our ordinary shares less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ordinary shares and our stock price may be more volatile.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.235 billion or more; (ii) the last day of the year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the closing of our IPO; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and are subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
We report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (1) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (2) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time and (3) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, although we are subject to Israeli laws and regulations with regard to certain of these matters and furnish comparable quarterly information on Form 6-K. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year and U.S. domestic issuers that are large accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 60 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation FD, which is intended to prevent issuers from making selective disclosures of material information.
52


As a result of all of the above, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of a company that is not a foreign private issuer.
We may lose our "foreign private issuer" status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
As discussed above, we are a foreign private issuer, and therefore, we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2024. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if (1) more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are owned by U.S. residents and (2) a majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents, or we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. If we lose our foreign private issuer status, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of the NYSE. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer.
As we are a “foreign private issuer” and intend to follow certain home country corporate governance practices, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance requirements.
As a foreign private issuer, we have the option to follow certain home country corporate governance practices rather than those of the NYSE, provided that we disclose the requirements we are not following and describe the home country practices we are following. We rely on this “foreign private issuer exemption” with respect to the NYSE rules for shareholder meeting quorums, NYSE rules requiring shareholder approval and NYSE rules regarding the composition of the nominating/corporate governance committee. We may in the future elect to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance requirements.
We do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.
We do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance operations and expand our business. Consequently, investors who purchase our shares may be unable to realize a gain on their investment except by selling sell such shares after price appreciation, which may never occur.
Our board of directors has sole discretion whether to pay dividends. If our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our directors may deem relevant. The Companies Law, imposes restrictions on our ability to declare and pay dividends. See “Description of share capital and articles of association—Dividend and liquidation rights” for additional information. In addition, we are subject to a restriction on paying dividends pursuant to our LSA with SVB.
Payment of dividends may also be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. See “Material income tax considerations—Israeli tax considerations” for additional information.




53


Our amended and restated articles of association provide that unless we consent to an alternate forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum of resolution of any claims arising under the Securities Act, which may impose additional litigation costs on our shareholders.
Our amended and restated articles of association provide that, unless we consent otherwise, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any claims arising under the Securities Act (for the sake of clarification, this provision does not apply to causes of action arising under the Exchange Act). While this provision of our amended and restated articles of association does not restrict the ability of our shareholders to bring claims under the Securities Act, nor does it affect the remedies available thereunder if such claims are successful, we recognize that it may limit shareholders' ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable and may increase certain litigation costs which may discourage the filing of claims under the Securities Act against the Company, its directors and officers. However, the enforceability of similar forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings and there is uncertainty as to whether courts would enforce the exclusive forum provisions in our amended and restated articles of association. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated articles of association to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks relating to Our Incorporation and Location in Israel
Conditions in Israel, including the recent attack by Hamas and other terrorist organizations from the Gaza Strip and elsewhere in the region, and Israel’s war against them, may adversely affect our operations and limit our ability to market our products, which would lead to a decrease in revenues.

Since a material portion of our operations are conducted in Israel and certain members of our board of directors and management as well as many of our employees and consultants, including employees of our service providers, are located in Israel, our business and operations are directly affected by economic, political, geopolitical and military conditions in Israel. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have occurred between Israel and its neighboring countries and terrorist organizations active in the region. These conflicts have involved missile strikes, hostile infiltrations and terrorism against civilian targets in various parts of Israel, which have negatively affected business conditions in Israel.
In October 2023, Hamas terrorists infiltrated Israel’s southern border from the Gaza Strip and conducted a series of attacks on civilian and military targets. Hamas also launched extensive rocket attacks on Israeli population and industrial centers located along Israel’s border with the Gaza Strip and in other areas within the State of Israel. These attacks resulted in extensive deaths, injuries and kidnapping of civilians and soldiers. Following the attack, Israel’s security cabinet declared war against Hamas and a military campaign against these terrorist organizations commenced in parallel to their continued rocket and terror attacks. In addition, since the commencement of these events, there have been continued hostilities along Israel’s northern border with Lebanon (with the Hezbollah terror organization) and southern border (with the Houthi movement in Yemen, as described below). It is possible that hostilities with Hezbollah in Lebanon will escalate, and that other terrorist organizations, including Palestinian military organizations in the West Bank as well as other hostile countries, such as Iran, will join the hostilities. Such clashes may escalate in the future into a greater regional conflict.
The intensity and duration of Israel’s current war against Hamas is difficult to predict, as are such war’s economic implications on the Company’s business and operations and on Israel's economy in general. These events may be intertwined with wider macroeconomic indications of a deterioration of Israel’s economic standing that may involve a downgrade in Israel's credit rating by rating agencies (such as the recent downgrade by Moody’s of its credit rating of Israel from A1 to A2, as well as the downgrade of its outlook rating from “stable” to “negative”), which may have a material adverse effect on the Company and its ability to effectively conduct its operations.



54


In connection with the Israeli security cabinet’s declaration of war against Hamas and possible hostilities with other organizations, several hundred thousand Israeli military reservists were drafted to perform immediate military service. Although many of such military reservists have since been released, they may be called up for additional reserve duty, depending on developments in the war in Gaza and along Israel's other borders. Certain of our employees and consultants in Israel, in addition to employees of our service providers located in Israel, have been called, and additional employees may be called, for service in the current or future wars or other armed conflicts with Hamas as well as the other pending or future armed conflicts in which Israel is or may become engaged, and such persons may be absent for an extended period of time. As a result, our operations may be disrupted by such absences, which disruption may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, the absence of employees of our Israeli suppliers and service providers due to their military service in the current or future wars or other armed conflicts may disrupt their operations, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our ability to deliver or provide products and services to customers.
The hostilities with Hamas, Hezbollah and other organizations and countries have included and may include terror, missile and drone attacks. In the event that our facilities are damaged as a result of hostile actions, or hostilities otherwise disrupt our ongoing operations, our ability to deliver or provide products and services in a timely manner to meet our contractual obligations towards customers and vendors could be materially and adversely affected. Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of events associated with war and terrorism. Although the Israeli government currently covers the reinstatement value of direct damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, we cannot assure you that such government coverage will be maintained or that it will sufficiently cover our potential damages. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, some countries around the world restrict doing business with Israel and Israeli companies, and additional countries may impose restrictions on doing business with Israel and Israeli companies if hostilities in Israel or political instability in the region continue or increase. In addition, there have been increased efforts by countries, activists and organizations to cause companies and consumers to boycott Israeli goods and services. In addition, in January 2024 the International Court of Justice, or ICJ, issued an interim ruling in a case filed by South Africa against Israel in December 2023, making allegations of genocide amid and in connection with the war in Gaza, and ordered Israel, among other things, to take measures to prevent genocidal acts, prevent and punish incitement to genocide, and take steps to provide basic services and humanitarian aid to civilians in Gaza. There are concerns that companies and businesses will terminate, and may have already terminated, certain commercial relationships with Israeli companies following the ICJ decision. The foregoing efforts by countries, activists and organizations, particularly if they become more widespread, as well as the ICJ rulings and future rulings and orders of other tribunals against Israel (if handed down), may materially and adversely impact our ability to sell and provide our products and services outside of Israel.
Furthermore, following Hamas’ attack on Israel and Israel’s security cabinet declaration of war against Hamas, the Houthi movement, which controls parts of Yemen, launched a number of attacks on marine vessels traversing the Red Sea, which marine vessels were thought to either be in route towards Israel or to be partly owned by Israeli businessmen. The Red Sea is a vital maritime route for international trade traveling to or from Israel. As a result of such disruptions, we may experience in the future delays in supplier deliveries, extended lead times, and increased cost of freight, insurance and purchased materials. The risk of ongoing supply disruptions may further result in delayed deliveries of products and services and may also have adverse impact on economic conditions in Israel.
Finally, political conditions within Israel may affect our operations. Israel has held five general elections between 2019 and 2022, and prior to October 2023, the Israeli government pursued extensive changes to Israel’s judicial system, which sparked extensive political debate and unrest. In response to such initiative, individuals, organizations and institutions, both within and outside of Israel, voiced concerns that the proposed changes may negatively impact the business environment in Israel including due to reluctance of foreign investors to invest or transact business in Israel, as well as to increased currency fluctuations, downgrades in credit rating, increased interest rates, increased volatility in security markets and other changes in macroeconomic conditions. To date, these initiatives have been substantially put on hold. If such changes to Israel’s judicial system are again pursued by the government and approved by the parliament, this may have an adverse effect on our business, our results of operations and our ability to raise additional funds, if deemed necessary by our management and board of directors.


55


It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us, our officers and directors named in this Annual Report in Israel or the United States, or to assert U.S. securities laws claims in Israel or serve process on our officers and directors.
Not all of our directors or officers are residents of the United States and most of their and our assets are located outside the United States. Service of process upon us or our non-U.S. resident directors and officers and enforcement of judgments obtained in the United States against us or our non-U.S. our directors and executive officers may be difficult to obtain within the United States. We have been informed by our legal counsel in Israel that it may be difficult to assert claims under U.S. securities laws in original actions instituted in Israel or obtain a judgment based on the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on a violation of U.S. securities laws against us or our non-U.S. officers and directors because Israel may not be the most appropriate forum to bring such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure will also be governed by Israeli law. There is little binding case law in Israel addressing the matters described above. Israeli courts might not enforce judgments rendered outside Israel, which may make it difficult to collect on judgments rendered against us or our non-U.S. officers and directors. Moreover, an Israeli court will not enforce a non-Israeli judgment if it was given in a state whose laws do not provide for the enforcement of judgments of Israeli courts (subject to exceptional cases), if its enforcement is likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State of Israel, if it was obtained by fraud or in the absence of due process, if it is at variance with another valid judgment that was given in the same matter between the same parties, or if a suit in the same matter between the same parties was pending before a court or tribunal in Israel at the time the foreign action was brought.
Your rights and responsibilities as our shareholder will be governed by Israeli law, which may differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. corporations.
We are incorporated under Israeli law. The rights and responsibilities of holders of our ordinary shares are governed by our amended and restated articles of association and the Companies Law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical U.S. corporations. In particular, pursuant to the Companies Law each shareholder of an Israeli company has to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising his or her rights and fulfilling his or her obligations toward the Company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his or her power in the Company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders, on amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and certain transactions requiring shareholders’ approval under the Companies Law. In addition, a controlling shareholder of an Israeli company or a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or who has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or officer in the Company, or has other powers toward the Company has a duty of fairness toward the Company. However, Israeli law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness. There is little case law available to assist in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholder behavior.
Provisions of Israeli law and our amended and restated articles of association may delay, prevent or make undesirable an acquisition of all or a significant portion of our shares or assets.
Provisions of Israeli law and our amended and restated articles of association could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control and may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or our shareholders to elect different individuals to our board of directors, even if doing so would be considered to be beneficial by some of our shareholders, and may limit the price that investors may be willing to pay in the future for our ordinary shares. Among other things:
Israeli corporate law regulates mergers and requires that a tender offer be effected when more than a specified percentage of shares in a company are purchased;
Israeli corporate law does not provide for shareholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all shareholder actions to be taken at a general meeting of shareholders;
our amended and restated articles of association divide our directors into three classes, each of which is elected once every three years;

56


our amended and restated articles of association generally require a vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding ordinary shares entitled to vote present and voting on the matter at a general meeting of shareholders (referred to as simple majority); however, the amendment of a limited number of provisions, such as (i) the provision empowering our board of directors to determine the size of the board, (ii) the provision setting forth the procedures and the requirements that must be met in order for a shareholder to require us to include a matter on the agenda for a general meeting of our shareholders, (iii) the provisions relating to the election and removal of members of our board of directors and empowering our board of directors to fill vacancies on the board, and (iv) the provision dividing our directors into three classes, requires a vote of the holders of 65% of our outstanding ordinary shares entitled to vote at a general meeting;
our amended and restated articles of association do not permit a director to be removed except by a vote of the holders of at least 65% of our outstanding shares entitled to vote at a general meeting of shareholders; and
our amended and restated articles of association provide that director vacancies may be filled by our board of directors.
Further, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions undesirable to us or to some of our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel granting tax relief to such shareholders from Israeli tax. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of numerous conditions, including a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which certain sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are restricted.
Our amended and restated articles of association provide that unless the Company consents otherwise, the Tel Aviv District Court (Economic Division) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between the Company and its shareholders under the Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, which could limit its shareholders' ability to brings claims and proceedings against, as well as obtain favorable judicial forum for disputes with the Company, its directors, officers and other employees.
Unless we consent otherwise, the Tel Aviv District Court (Economic Division) shall be the exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Company to the Company or the Company’s shareholders, or (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Companies Law or the Israeli Securities Law. This exclusive forum provision is intended to apply to claims arising under Israeli Law and would not apply to claims brought pursuant to the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which federal courts would have exclusive jurisdiction. Such exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated articles of association will not relive the Company of its duties to comply with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and shareholders of the Company will not be deemed to have waived the Company’s compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. This exclusive forum provision may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with the Company or its directors or other employees which may discourage lawsuits against the Company, its directors, officers and employees. However, there is uncertainty as to whether courts would enforce the exclusive forum provisions in our amended and restated articles of association. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated articles of association to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.







57


General Risk Factors
The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this Annual Report may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this Annual Report may prove to be inaccurate. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included in this Annual Report, including those we have generated ourselves, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate, including the risks described herein. Even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
The variables that go into the calculation of our market opportunity are subject to change over time, including global inflation rates, and there is no guarantee that any particular number or percentage of addressable customers or companies covered by our market opportunity estimates will purchase our solutions at all or generate any particular level of revenue for us. Any expansion in our market depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our platform and those of our competitors. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasted in this Annual Report, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the forecasts of market growth included in this Annual Report should not be taken as indicative of our future growth.We may be subject to liability claims if we breach our contracts and our insurance may be inadequate to cover our losses.
We are subject to numerous obligations in our contracts with organizations using our solutions. Despite the procedures, systems and internal controls we have implemented to comply with our contracts, we may breach these commitments, whether through a weakness in these procedures, systems and internal controls, negligence or the willful act of an employee or contractor. Our insurance policies, including our errors and omissions insurance, may be inadequate to compensate us for the potentially significant losses that may result from claims arising from breaches of our contracts, disruptions in our services, failures or disruptions to our infrastructure, catastrophic events and disasters or otherwise. Further, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
We may be subject to litigation for a variety of claims, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
In the ordinary course of business, we may be involved in and subject to litigation for a variety of claims or disputes and receive regulatory inquiries. These claims, lawsuits and proceedings could include labor and employment, wage and hour, commercial, data privacy, antitrust, alleged securities law violations or other investor claims and other matters. The number and significance of these potential claims and disputes may increase as our business expands. Any claim against us, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management’s attention and operational resources and harm our reputation. As litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that any potential claims or disputes will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could make it more difficult to compete effectively or to obtain adequate insurance in the future.
In addition, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our contractual, property and other rights, including collection of payments and fees. Litigation has been and may be necessary in the future to enforce such rights. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of our rights. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of such rights. Our inability to protect our rights as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows or injure our reputation.


58


We are subject to evolving corporate governance and public disclosure regulations and expectations, including with respect to environmental, social and governance matters that could expose us to numerous risks.
We are subject to changing rules and regulations promulgated by a number of governmental and self-regulatory organizations, including the SEC and the NYSE. These rules and regulations continue to evolve in scope and complexity and many new requirements have been created in response to laws enacted by Congress, making compliance difficult and uncertain. In addition, increasingly regulators, customers, investors, employees and other stakeholders are focusing on environmental, social and governance, or ESG, matters and related disclosures. These changing rules, regulations and stakeholder expectations could result in increased general and administrative expenses and increased management time and attention spent complying with or meeting such regulations and expectations. For example, developing and acting on ESG initiatives, and collecting, measuring, and reporting ESG information and metrics can be costly, difficult and time consuming and is subject to evolving reporting standards, including the SEC’s proposed climate-related reporting requirements. In addition, we may communicate certain initiatives and goals regarding environmental matters, diversity, responsible sourcing, social investments and other ESG matters in our SEC filings or in other public disclosures. These initiatives and goals could be difficult and expensive to implement, the technologies needed to implement them may not be cost effective and may not advance at a sufficient pace, and ensuring the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of the disclosure of our ESG initiatives can be costly, difficult and time-consuming.
We may be affected by market or regulatory responses to climate change. Growing public concern about climate change has resulted in the increased focus of local, state, regional, national and international regulatory bodies on greenhouse gas, or GHG, emissions and climate change issues. In the United States, President Joe Biden has made climate change and the limitation of GHG emissions one of his primary objectives. We may also incur additional expenses as a result of U.S. and international regulators requiring additional disclosures regarding GHG emissions. Compliance with such regulations and the associated potential cost is complicated by the fact that various countries and regions are following different approaches to the regulation of climate change.
Future acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships, or alliances could be difficult to identify and integrate, divert the attention of key management personnel, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and harm our results of operations and financial condition.
We intend to continue to seek to acquire or invest in businesses, solutions, or technologies that we believe could complement our platform or expand its breadth, enhance our technical capabilities, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. In 2022, in furtherance of this strategy, we acquired a company to add complimentary services to our platform and to optimize our products. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated. Any acquisition, investment or business relationship may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In addition, we have limited experience in acquiring other businesses. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate successfully the acquired personnel, operations and technologies or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. Specifically, we may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel, or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. Moreover, the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, investment or business relationship may not be realized or we may be exposed to unknown risks or liabilities.
We may not be able to find and identify desirable acquisition targets or we may not be successful in entering into an agreement with any one target. Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could harm our results of operations. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows may suffer.






59


Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
Natural disasters, geopolitical conditions or events (such as the current armed conflict between Russian and Ukraine and the war in Israel), and other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. We have our headquarters and a large employee presence in Givatayim, Israel, which is located in a considerably volatile area of the world and is currently impacted by the war against the terrorist organization Hamas in the Gaza Strip and related matters, as further described above in the section “Risks relating to our incorporation and location in Israel.” In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane, or catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our application development, lengthy interruptions to our platform, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our business, financial condition, revenue, results of operations or cash flows. Acts of terrorism could also cause disruptions to the Internet or the economy as a whole. In addition, the insurance we maintain would likely not be adequate to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.
Unrest in certain countries may pose security risks to our people, our facilities, our systems, our operations and local infrastructure, such as utilities and network services, and the disruption of any or all of them could materially adversely affect our operations and/or financial results. In particular, we engage approximately 53 persons from the Ukraine, primarily in software development and quality assurance roles. Russian military troops launched significant military action in Ukraine on February 24, 2022, and the ongoing military conflict could materially disrupt our development efforts targeted at customer interface and experience, including by forcing our personnel there to relocate. This may increase our costs, disrupt or delay current or future planned development activities in Ukraine or force us to shift development efforts to resources in other geographies that may not afford the same level of cost efficiencies. Whether in these countries or in others in which we operate, civil unrest, political instability or uncertainty, military activities, or broad-based sanctions, should they continue for the long term or escalate, could require us to re-balance our geographic concentrations and could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial performance, including through increased costs of compliance, restrictions on our ability to sell into specific regions, higher volatility in foreign currency exchange rates, increased use of less cost-efficient resources and negative impacts to our business resulting from deteriorating general economic conditions and adverse impacts to the operations and financial condition of our suppliers, partners and customers.
In addition, the current invasion of Ukraine by Russia has escalated tensions among the U.S., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and Russia. The U.S., other North Atlantic Treaty Organization member states, as well as non-member states, have announced new sanctions against Russia and certain Russian banks, enterprises and individuals. These and any future additional sanctions and any resulting conflict between Russia, the U.S. and other countries could have an adverse impact on our operations in Ukraine, create global security concerns, increase the risk of cyber-attacks and have a lasting impact on regional and global economies. Any such sanctions and resulting conflict could also negatively impact or even restrict our ability to market and sell our products in Russia and other countries, which would adversely affect our revenue.
Operational disruptions from events such as the COVID-19 pandemic could result in a reduction to information technology budgets, delayed purchasing decisions, longer sales cycles, extended payment terms, the timing of payments, and postponed or canceled projects, all of which would negatively impact our business and operating results, including sales and cash flows. Additionally, it is possible that continued widespread remote work arrangements may have a negative impact on our operations, the execution of our business plans, the productivity and availability of key personnel and other employees necessary to conduct our business, and on third-party service providers who perform critical services for us, or otherwise cause operational failures due to changes in our normal business practices. If a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurs that impacts our employees’ ability to work remotely, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The increase in remote working may increase exposure vulnerabilities, resulting in privacy, data protection, data security and fraud risks and operational inefficiencies.
The information contained in this section is accurate as of the date hereof, but may become outdated due to changing circumstances beyond our present awareness or control.

60


Item 4. Information on the Company
A.History and Development of the Company
The legal and commercial name of our company is Similarweb Ltd. We were incorporated in February 2009 under the Israel Companies Law, 5759-1999, or the Companies Law, of the State of Israel and commenced operations on that date. Our principal executive offices are located at 33 Yitzhak Rabin Rd., Givatayim 5348303, Israel. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Similarweb, Inc., 16 East 34st Street, 15th Floor, New York, NY 10016. Our website address is www.similarweb.com, and our telephone number is +972-3-544-7782. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report and is not incorporated by reference herein. We have included our website address in this Annual Report solely for informational purposes. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as we, that file electronically, with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
For a description of our principal capital expenditures and divestitures for the three years ended December 31, 2023 and for those currently in progress, see Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”

B.Business Overview
Overview
Similarweb is a leader in digital data and analytics powering critical business decisions. We uncover what is happening online and seek to provide businesses with the best digital data and analytics to build strategy, optimize customer acquisition and enhance monetization.
While we are well known for our productized software solutions, as well as for our application programming interface (API) and our freemium offerings estimating website and app traffic, at our core we are a data business. Similarweb Digital Data is both our core product and our fundamental unit of value. To create our proprietary data asset, we collect billions of unprocessed web and mobile data points on activity related to companies and products. Our data scientists and engineers transform the unrefined data on interactions and transactions into the corpus of Similarweb Digital Data using machine learning and artificial intelligence. Our customers use Similarweb Digital Data to power critical decision for running their businesses through one or more of our productized solutions to which they subscribe.Today, businesses have access to unprecedented amounts of internal data that they can utilize for decision making. However, the data generally available to them only relates to the transactions and interactions with their own audience across their digital properties, such as the websites, apps and social media channels that they own. Businesses have very limited visibility into the broader behaviors of consumers, or the digital performance of competitors, partners and other players. As a result, companies operate frequently with a lack of external visibility, impairing their ability to execute on everything from corporate strategy to day-to-day operations. Similarweb provides this visibility. We believe we are becoming recognized as the standard for powering decisions that rely on data for businesses and their competitors across all channels within the digital world. Like wattage powers cities, Similarweb Digital Data powers decisions related to the digital world that create significant competitive advantages.

We deliver Similarweb Digital Data to our paying customers in a variety of modes that, combined, comprise our delivery platform: Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Data-as-a-Service (DaaS), and Advisory Services. We organize our SaaS approach by solutions to business challenges, which include those found in market research, digital marketing, sales, ecommerce, and investment evaluation. Businesses utilize our productized SaaS solutions to enhance the capabilities of their professionals - from business leaders, strategy teams, analysts, marketers, category managers, to salespeople - to quickly and efficiently discover their best growth opportunities, identify potential competitive threats and make critical decisions to acquire customers and grow revenue. Our DaaS solution provides SMBs, enterprises and strategic accounts with integration of data feeds via API or other means for deployment of Similarweb Digital Data within their organizations through their own internal interfaces, and into their own software products when relevant. We provide advisory services to businesses typically at the enterprise and strategic account
61


level that seek embedded assistance with business challenges for which we have not yet productized a solution, or for extensively customized data and analytics to accomplish their objectives using Similarweb Digital Data. Our advisory services customers often purchase Similarweb Digital Data through our SaaS and DaaS offerings as well.

We generate revenue primarily through paid annual subscriptions to Similarweb Digital Data via our delivery methods across various pricing tiers based on feature set, geographic coverage and number of users. In addition, we have a free offering that offers access to a wide range of basic services, providing customers with a subset of the robust insights and analytics offered by our feature-rich paid subscriptions. Our free offering is intended to drive awareness and to enable potential customers to realize the value they can derive from our paid offerings.

We have a highly efficient dual-pronged sales approach with both inbound and outbound sales motions, which includes a global sales force supported by a team of technical and data experts. Our direct sales team engages with our largest customers while our inside sales team engages with our smaller customers. Following the initial sale, we engage with our customers regularly through support services, self-service product education, and proactive account management team check-ins. As part of this approach, we also seek to upsell customers to new solutions, building upon the value of Similarweb Digital Data to their business objectives and a desire to add additional feature sets, geographic coverage, users and categories of digital data and analytics solutions.

We sell to companies across a wide range of industries such as retail, consumer packaged goods, consumer finance, consultancies, marketing and advertising agencies, media and publishers, business-to-business software, payment processors, travel, and institutional investors. As of December 31, 2023, we had 4,712 paying customers.
Our business has grown rapidly and is transitioning towards the simultaneous pursuit of growth and profitability. We grew our revenue by 40% for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 and 13% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. Additionally, we have $87.6 million and $81.8 million in cash, cash equivalents and restricted deposits as of December 31, 2022 and 2023, respectively. We generated revenue of $137.7 million, $193.2 million and $218.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. We had negative operating cash flow of $27.6 million, $46.1 million and $3.0 million and had negative free cash flow of $30.4 million, $77.2 million and $5.4 million in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. See the section titled “—Non-GAAP financial measures—Free cash flow” for additional information regarding free cash flow, a measure that is not calculated under GAAP. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, our net loss was $69.0 million, $83.7 million and $29.4 million, respectively. These results reflect our focus on operating efficiency and pursuit of profitable growth.
Our Market Opportunity
We believe that through our delivery of Similarweb Digital Data we provide businesses with mission critical insights to make better decisions in today’s macroeconomic environment, which will be used by companies of all sizes across most industries. We estimate that the current total addressable market, or TAM, for our offerings is approximately $52 billion. We calculate our market opportunity by using the total number of global companies, which we determined by referencing independent industry data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the S&P Capital IQ database. We then multiply the number of small to medium enterprises by our average entry level pricing package, and multiply the number of large enterprise companies by our current average revenue per customer.



62


We believe there are several key trends in the global macroeconomic environment generating additional growth in our TAM and increasing the potential demand for our solutions:
• Growing Recognition of Analytics and Data-Informed Business Decisioning. Due to the pervasive digital transformation that nearly all industries are experiencing, we believe businesses are increasingly recognizing the value of incorporating data-driven insights into their organizations. We believe businesses are leveraging the advancements of technology in data creation and interpretation to analyze business practices with the aim of improving efficiency, reducing risk and driving growth. We expect companies will continue to recognize the value in relying on insightful and accurate B2B data in their strategy, sales and marketing workflows.
• Growth in Data Creation and Applications. We believe that as a result of the increasing recognition of data’s value, the volume of data sets being collected and assembled continues to increase. Not only is the size of these data sets significantly large, but the data being collected covers a wider range of topics and subjects. Driven in large part by the global trend of an "Internet of Things”, the proliferation of mobile phones and connected devices has created a "digital exhaust" of data that can be captured and tracked. This alternative data can be incorporated in predictive models alongside traditional data to provide more sophisticated and accurate business insights. Businesses now have a massive amount of data at their fingertips but often have to rely on large scale providers to help them curate, match, append and create insights in order to convert that data into improved outcomes.
• Advances in Analytical Capabilities Unlocking the Value of Data. The combination of increasingly available data sets with effective artificial intelligence and machine learning capabilities allows for the generation of mission critical insights integrated into clients’ workflows. Businesses that lack the resources for developing these complex tools and solutions internally turn to data and analytics providers, creating market demand. The availability of more insightful analytical tools, in turn, drives growing recognition of the power of analytics in everyday business processes. Further, for various strategic and other reasons, some businesses may prefer the delivery of certain types of data and analytics with a distinct layer of independence and/or objectivity included as part of the value created by the provider.
We believe that due to our differentiated capabilities and our long-term client relationships, we are well-positioned to capture this market opportunity and benefit from these long-term trends.
Further, we believe we have the opportunity to increase our penetration within our potential customer base and are addressing a very small portion of our market opportunity today. We believe over the longer term the expanded market potential for our services will manifest within the intersections of the markets for business intelligence software, marketing research and analysis services, sales intelligence software and services, marketing analytics software, audience analytics and alternative data for investors. From a top down perspective this potential participation in these relevant markets over time approaches a combined $100 billion per reports and analysis published by MarketsandMarkets, Future Market Insights, Statista, Research and Markets, and Grand View Research.
Our Data Business
In order to power business decisions that build strategy, accelerate customer acquisition, and maximize monetization, we have created a comprehensive view of the digital landscape, which consists of Similarweb Digital Data. We collect real-time digital signals of interactions and transactions on millions of websites and mobile apps, and analyze billions of search terms, digital ads, eCommerce product stock keeping units, or SKUs, articles and content pages across digital platforms, channels, industries and geographies. Through synthesis, modeling and analysis, we transform these digital data points into Similarweb Digital Data, which we deliver through SaaS, DaaS, or Advisory Services to our customers. Over the last 12 years, we have spent substantial resources to establish our data sets, methodology and leading technology. Our unique, multi-dimensional approach to analyzing the digital world leverages the experience of a team of PhDs and data scientists to cleanse and model vast amounts of data collected into reliable and actionable insights which comprises Similarweb Digital Data.
63


Data Collection.jpg
Data Collection
We design our system to collect a diversified universe of digital data signals, constructed of statistically representative data sets that draw from sources across countries, industries, user groups and devices . We have been proactive in diversifying our data inputs such that the metrics we present in our solutions are derived from multiple sources and are self-adjusting to changes in the market. We do not acquire a significant portion of our data from a single data partner or group of data partners, and routinely enter into agreements with additional data partners. Our sources represent over 3 billion digital interactions and transactions per day and 1 million events per minute.

We collect our data across sources that we classify in four distinct categories:
First-party direct measurement data and analytics that millions of websites and mobile app owners share with Similarweb directly, giving us certain visibility into specific websites and mobile apps:
Millions of website and app owners share their aggregated first-party analytics directly with us. These direct measurement tools feed our machine learning algorithms and enrich our data and analytics solutions. In addition, many of these companies who share with us their first-party analytics data regarding their website traffic also choose to have us publicly share that data on our platform, and we believe they do so given our high brand awareness and popular free offering, and because these companies monetize traffic. As part of the process in which most website and app owners register as Similarweb users, they indicate whether they are willing to share their first party direct measurement data (such as data provided by Google Analytics) with us; the data in this category comes from those that opt to allow such access.
Contributory network of a collection of consumer products that aggregate de-identified or anonymous device behavioral data:
We aggregate de-identified or anonymous traffic data from a collection of proprietary and third-party consumer-oriented desktop products and mobile apps. These consumer products and apps generally are provided in exchange for the ability to gather de-identified or anonymous users' digital activity. The data collected is used to understand website and app usage and traffic sources. This data is sourced from diverse audiences to maintain an accurate and consistent view of the digital world over time. The data in this category is collected pursuant to the terms of use of the respective apps or products, which enable the use of de-identified or anonymous data subject to the terms of their privacy policies.
64


Public data capture where we use advanced algorithmic and proprietary technology that captures and indexes public data from hundreds of millions of websites and apps:
Our public data sources represent an aggregation of online information available to the public. We employ algorithmic and proprietary automated techniques to capture and index publicly-available data from billions of web pages and apps every month. These data sources help us to further refine our predictive models.
Partnerships with a global network of companies that collect digital signals:
We partner with a global network of companies that capture digital data points and provide us with additional data from three data types (first-party direct measurement data, contributory network data and public data) to supplement our own direct data collection, and to provide us with additional types of data to help us understand behavior across the digital world. These partners include consumer apps, internet operators, measurement companies and demand-side platforms that aggregate behavioral data across websites and apps. We partner with these companies pursuant to data license or similar agreements. As part of the process of contracting with such companies, we conduct due diligence on their data collection processes and privacy practices and require representations and warranties with respect to those matters in the agreements that we enter into with them.
Data synthesis
In addition to creating robust data collection methodologies, we have built sophisticated machine learning algorithms that synthesize data inputs collected for further modeling.
Cleaning the inputs to remove abnormal data points, behavior anomalies and to confirm the de-identification or anonymization of any personal data.
Matching the data points in a sequential order to identify meaningful behavioral sequences or transactional streams of events.
Pre-Processing the billions of data points for estimation with our proprietary URL classification system to measure website traffic by acquisition channel.
Blending of multiple sources and historical digital signals to attain a comprehensive learning set of digital signals.
This process aggregates these mixed data sources and types into a single data set at the website or mobile app level, removing irregularities.
Data modeling
After data has been normalized and synthesized it is then run through our specialized machine learning training to generate predictive models that provide a consistent view of the digital world over time. This process includes:
Training machine learning models continuously refining for irregularities and estimation of biases in the digital signals.
Blending models for refined accuracy and consistency of our industry-leading estimations.
Reporting key insights across countries, industries, user groups and devices for a comprehensive view of the digital world.
This final process results in the finished product of Similarweb Digital Data that is ready for delivery, spanning the categories below.
65


Lego Bricks.jpg
Data delivery
After our data transformation engine generates powerful, ready-to-use insights in the form of Similarweb Digital Data, we then deliver it through our SaaS, DaaS or advisory services methods to help companies make critical decisions about business strategy, customer acquisition, and monetization. Our delivery models include:
Software-as-a-Service. Our SaaS solutions help businesses accelerate their growth, empowering our users to discover and capture the best business opportunities and proactively respond to emerging threats to the business. These solutions are powered by our proprietary technology that analyzes billions of digital interactions and transactions every day, from millions of websites and apps, and turns these digital signals into actionable insights. Our digital data and analytics solutions address the needs of users across entire organizations, from entry-level employees to the C-suite. Our solutions are easy to use and integrated into our users’ workflows for seamless adoption and maximum business impact. They provide a unified view of the digital world to power data-driven decision-making. Our SaaS solutions include:
Digital Research Intelligence. Allows senior leaders, strategy, business intelligence, and consumer insights teams to benchmark performance against competitors and market leaders, analyze trends in the market, conduct deeper research into specific companies and analyze audience behavior. This solution is used primarily to build strategy.
Examples of business objectives and questions that can be addressed by our Digital Research Intelligence solution include:
Strategy formation
“What is the size and growth rate of the online banking industry in the US?”
“Which online marketplace is gaining the most market share?"
Revenue maximization
“What is a good conversion rate in the apparel industry?”
“What news topics are drawing the highest engagement with audiences?”
Risk mitigation
“In which geographies and marketing channels are my competitors outpacing my online growth?”
“To which competitors and topics am I losing audience engagement?”
Digital Marketing Intelligence. Allows marketing leaders, search engine optimization, or SEO, and content managers, pay-per-click, or PPC, and performance marketers, affiliate marketers and media buyers to understand their competitors’ online acquisition strategies in each marketing channel, including search keyword optimization, affiliate optimization and advertising and media buying strategies, and optimize their own strategies in response. This solution is used primarily to enhance customer acquisition.

Examples of business objectives and questions that can be addressed by our Digital Marketing Intelligence solution include:
66


Marketing spend planning
“Are my competitors generating more efficient acquisition gains from paid or organic channels?”
“From which marketing channel do travel businesses get the most traffic?”
User acquisition optimization
“Which keywords drive the most traffic share for shoe companies?”
“Which digital ad types perform the best for luxury brands?”
Traffic loss mitigation
“From which of my top keywords are competitors stealing traffic share?”
“Which of my affiliate partners are shifting traffic to competitors?”
Sales Intelligence. Allows sales management and operations, sales representatives and account management teams to access relevant buying signals and digital insights of their customers in order to generate more leads more quickly, enrich leads automatically and collaboratively engage with prospects and customers. This solution is used primarily to enhance customer acquisition.
Examples of business objectives and questions that can be addressed by our Sales Intelligence solution include:
Pipeline generation
“How can I identify the fastest growing eCommerce companies, so that I can target them?”
“Which companies outside my CRM fit my ideal customer profile?”
Win rate optimization
“How can I create the most powerful pitch to win my prospect's business?”
“What is the most important factor for my prospect’s buying decision?”
Relationship building & Retention maximization
“When should I engage my customers to ensure the best conversion?”
“In what additional offerings would my customer be interested?”
Shopper Intelligence. Allows digital commerce leadership and category and product managers to analyze a complete view of their customers’ digital journeys, monitor consumer demand, increase brand visibility in the search process and optimize category and product level conversion in the purchase process. This solution is used primarily to maximize monetization.
Examples of business objectives and questions that can be addressed by our Shopper Intelligence solution include:
Strategy formation
“How can I get more visibility in online marketplaces like Amazon, Walmart, or Target?”
“On which marketplaces or first-party websites do personal care products convert better?”
Revenue maximization
“How much money are consumers willing to spend on my products?”
“What is the average purchase frequency in my category?”
Risk mitigation
“Which of my customers are cross-shopping? Which brands are they evaluating?”
“Which of my competitor’s products are selling the most on Amazon? What other marketplaces is my competitor using to sell their product?”
Investor Intelligence. Allows portfolio managers, investment professionals, data scientists and research analysts to access an end-to-end view of market, sector or company performance in order to ideate and monitor investment opportunities, forecast market performance and perform due diligence. This solution is used primarily to maximize monetization.
67


Examples of business objectives and questions that can be addressed by our Investor Intelligence solution include:
Investment ideation
“Within the food and grocery sector, which company offers the best opportunity?”
“Is the apparel re-sale sector on track to grow this year?”
Investment monitoring & Risk mitigation
“In which geographies is this company experiencing the fastest growth?”
“How can I improve my portfolio company’s brand health and traffic?”
Hypothesis validation
“What does daily digital traffic suggest about company performance against market expectations?”
“What does travel website activity predict for hotel occupancy rates next summer?”
Similarweb Digital Data SaaS Solutions
Similarweb Digital Data SaaS Solutions.jpg

Data-as-a-Service. We enable businesses to create their own view of the digital world at scale with large, configurable, structured, granular data tables of Similarweb Digital Data that are easily delivered to their data lake. We offer self-operated access via our batch API, rest API and AWS Data Exchange and through Snowflake and AWS Data Exchange marketplace applications. We also provide Similarweb administered access through data feeds and custom delivery modes. Direct access to Similarweb Digital Data enables our customers to configure their own approaches to making their critical business decisions.
68


DAAS Solutions.jpg

Advisory Services. When businesses request our assistance with problems for which we have not yet productized a solution, they often partner with our Advisory Services team to unlock premium analyses from Similarweb Digital Data. Our Advisory Services team provides custom embedded consulting engagements that are tailored to meet specific business needs. Our leading experts in online data analysis work directly with customers to frame and solve their core business challenges. We work alongside our customers' teams to help them make critical business decisions. From these engagements, the majority of which provide an additional source of recurring revenue, we regularly utilize the work done to create scalable productized solutions to further expand into our TAM.
AS Framework.jpg

69


Our Competitive Strengths
We believe our robust data repository and our unique prediction models powered by machine learning represents a significant competitive advantage and makes us the de facto standard for powering decisions with data from the digital world. We have aggregated data for over eleven years and have amassed a quality and quantity of digital data in our corpus that we believe is nearly impossible to replicate. Through synthesis, modeling and analysis, we transform these digital data points into Similarweb Digital Data, which is delivered through Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Data-as-a-Service (DaaS), or Advisory Services, and is:
Timely. Digital interactions and transactions generate massive quantities of data, and because of the high velocity of the digital economy, this information quickly becomes out-of-date. As a result of the diversity and scale of data, as well as the need to keep the data current, it is extremely difficult to build and maintain a comprehensive view of all digital activity. We capture digital signals as they occur and provide our customers with timely insights into the digital world that allow them to take action. Within 72 hours of a transaction or interaction, our platform analyzes relevant data and provides actionable insights to our users. In order to be able to make mission critical decisions, our customers rely on the insights they derive from Similarweb Digital Data to be timely and relevant. Fresh data enables companies to be flexible and proactive in responding to developing trends and see the impact of their decisions as they occur. These timely insights make us essential in decision-making processes and drive increased usage by our customers.
Comprehensive. Similarweb Digital Data is powered by a comprehensive set of data points that is:
Multi-industry. Our data set covers virtually every industry and includes additional granularity on sub-industries and companies, providing our customers with a comprehensive understanding of their market and adjacent competitive landscapes.
Global. Our data set provides global and country-specific views of digital activity helping our customers create strategies across virtually any geography.
Multi-platform. We are able to generate a robust data set by aggregating data from all of the various sources that people use to interact and transact digitally. We collect data across desktop, mobile web, iOS and Android, allowing us to provide our customers with a complete picture of digital activity.
Multi-channel. We analyze data across a variety of channels, including direct traffic, organic and paid search, referrals, display banners, video, e-mail and social media. By measuring engagement across digital channels, we are able to deliver deeper and more valuable insights than point solutions that focus on a single channel or subset of channels.
Artificial Intelligence. We have developed sophisticated tools allowing users to access valuable insights from Similarweb Digital Data through natural language queries. The first-of-its-kind digital intelligence assistant integrates proprietary data with large language AI models, streamlining the process for users to navigate the competitive landscape and improve digital performance.

Intuitive. We deliver powerful insights that customers can access through our various offerings. Our SaaS offering does not require a complex analytical skill set or technical expertise to derive value; rather we offer a consumer-oriented user interface that is delightful to use and easy to understand. This ease of use means that anyone in an organization can easily leverage our SaaS solutions to power data-driven decision-making.

Proactive. Similarweb Digital Data proactively highlights insights and takeaways in a way that any business user can understand. Our dynamic interface provides all relevant information in a digestible manner, allowing users to have all of the information they need to understand performance and make decisions. Through our machine learning capabilities, we proactively anticipate and deliver relevant data, preventing users from needing to run multiple data queries or know all of the potential questions they need to ask ahead of time. For example, our SaaS
70


sales solution will alert a sales lead to engage a prospective customer based on observation of the right buying signals.

Unified. Similarweb Digital Data provides a unified view of digital data and analytics. All members of an organization using our data can see the same output from the same data set, allowing decision-making processes to become easier as everyone has access to the same data. The democratization of access to the digital insights that our platform provides fosters collaboration across hierarchies and teams within an organization and enables us to be the single source of truth.

Actionable. We not only provide the data, but also offer insights that answer relevant questions to help drive critical business decisions. Customers can easily use our API to integrate our data and insights into their own bespoke analytical models. Our offerings are built to provide granular data including brand, product or page level engagement critical to creation of actionable insights. Additionally, our up-to-date data enables businesses to take action on information while it is still relevant. In today’s fast-moving world, our timely, comprehensive data collection and dynamic insight creation enables organizations to optimize decision-making without compromising on speed.
Our Growth Strategy
We intend to drive the growth of our business through the following strategies:
Acquire new customers. We believe there is substantial opportunity to continue to grow our customer base. Leveraging our efficient go-to-market function, we plan to bring new customers across all geographies and industries to our platform. Similarweb Digital Data is broadly applicable, tracking digital activity across approximately 210 industries and 190 countries. As digital data and analytics becomes an even greater point of emphasis for companies and investors, we believe we are well-positioned to grow our share within our current market, as well as to add new customers who previously had not been in the market for digital intelligence solutions.
Expand spend from existing customers. Our large base of current customers represents a significant opportunity for future sales expansion. We aspire to increase the spending by our existing customers as they add more solutions to get even more value from our platform. We have seen a consistent land-and-expand trend with our customers as they generate value from using our platform, and subsequently add additional users and use cases to their subscriptions. We strategically deploy our sales team to offer support and manage our largest accounts, often helping them identify additional opportunities to derive benefits from our solution.
Continue innovation and technology leadership. Our success is dependent on our ability to sustain innovation and technology leadership in order to maintain our competitive advantage. While we believe that we have the most comprehensive offering in the market today, we plan to add new features and functionality to continue to drive deeper insights for our customers. We intend to continue to invest in expanding our product and engineering staff to innovate and develop additional solutions that expand our capabilities and facilitate the extension of our platform to new use cases - a number of which emerge from our Advisory Services engagements, where customers partner with us to address their needs.
Further democratize access. We plan to expand the functionality and accessibility of our platform, enabling even further adoption among existing and new customers. We plan to continually add new types of insights and features to our platform, expanding potential use cases. We believe that by democratizing access to info and insights even further, our platform will become an even more critical component of the decision-making process for businesses worldwide.
Collect more digital data points. The continuous acquisition and transformation of new and unique digital data points into Similarweb Digital Data drives valuable scale effects for our business. Increased data collection via manual and customer-driven means constantly enhances our data asset. More Similarweb Digital Data leads to more use cases and greater applicability to more business decisions that our current and prospective customers will make.
71


Pursue M&A opportunities. We intend to continue to evaluate strategic acquisitions and investments in businesses and technologies to drive solution and market expansion.
Riding the AI Wave. Amidst the myriad of companies developing new AI modules, we recognize that one of the primary differentiators lies in the unique datasets these modules can access. We believe that our company possesses distinct and valuable data, providing us with a potentially significant competitive advantage in the industry. We see Similarweb Digital Data as a strategic advantage, poised to be a sought-after asset for other companies within the AI space. This may not only generate new and reliable revenue streams but also establish us as key contributors in the realm of cutting-edge technology.
Our Customers
We serve a broad range of customers of all sizes across a variety of industries including agencies & consulting, consumer goods, financial services, media, pharmaceuticals, retail, technology and travel, among others. As of December 31, 2023, we had 4,712 customers globally.
As of December 31, 2023, 365 of our customers generated ARR of $100,000 or more, representing 57% of our total ARR. Most of these larger customers initially began as smaller customers and increased their spending over time as they saw the value of our Similarweb Digital Data. We see a significant opportunity to continue expanding our existing customer spending with a growing number of customers generating ARR of $1 million or more.
For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, approximately 56%, 53% and 53% of our revenue, respectively, was generated from customers outside of the United States and no single customer generated more than 5% of our revenue.
Our Sales and Marketing Operations
We deploy a highly efficient approach to sales and marketing in order to grow our business. Our sales and marketing teams collaborate to create brand awareness and demand, build a robust sales pipeline and ensure customer success, driving revenue growth. We believe that our sales and marketing model provides us with a competitive advantage because we attract and engage new businesses efficiently and at scale, and we have established a successful upsell motion to grow existing customer accounts.

We believe that we have a highly efficient sales organization, which includes a global sales force, technical and data experts, and support staff, operating through both an inbound and outbound sales motion. The inbound sales motion accounts for approximately three quarters of our new sales opportunities, where prospective customers display initial interest in our Similarweb Digital Data by visiting or contacting us through our website. These cost-effective leads are efficiently converted to pipeline opportunities for our sales teams to pursue. We complement this inbound motion with an outbound motion focused on developing sales opportunities with larger targeted accounts, where our sales representatives engage organizations based on a geographic coverage model. In general, large enterprises are covered by our field sales team, and smaller organizations by our inside sales team. We have a team of account managers focused on expanding and retaining our existing customer relationships by helping our customers optimize the value they derive through their usage of our platform, solutions and Similarweb Digital Data. We continually engage with our customers post-purchase through support services and proactive account management team check-ins. As part of this engagement, we also seek to identify additional opportunities to upsell customers to new services based upon the value and experience they are deriving from Similarweb Digital Data. It is our belief that such customers may want to add additional feature functionality, geographic coverage, users, and digital data and analytics solutions.
To drive sales, we leverage free offerings that attract and engage prospects’ interest and feature our platform capabilities. Through our website, and through a popular browser extension, we provide free access to a wide range of basic services that provide users with a subset of our robust insights and analytics as well as the opportunity to explore the value they could achieve from our paid offerings. Our free offerings deliver ranking and ratings of websites and apps as of a recent date and act as an entry point for many users who often upgrade to paid
72


subscriptions. In 2023, we attracted over 120 million users with these free offerings, resulting in hundreds of thousands of sales leads. While functional and relevant to a broad swath of businesses, our free offerings offer significantly less functionality than our paid solutions, which address specific use cases with robust insights and time series data, with granular details around web traffic, behavior and user journey that can drive business decisions and success. We believe this tiered approach creates evangelists within organizations who see the value of our solutions, build trust in and connection with our brand, and spread the word organically.
Our marketing efforts focus on establishing our brand, generating awareness, positioning our products in the market, creating demand, and nurturing the Similarweb community. We focus on promoting our free products, which are integral parts of our customer acquisition process, as well as our paid solutions and the functionality they offer. Our marketing team consists primarily of product marketing, demand generation, field and event marketing, communications and solution campaign management. Marketing leverages both online and offline marketing activities such as events and trade shows, seminars and webinars, paid digital advertising, content marketing, search engine optimization, and email marketing. Our content marketing efforts include publication of educational content, white papers, case studies, and blogs. Our marketing team also creates and publishes digital research, backed by insights derived from our Similarweb Digital Data that effectively capture media attention through our public relation efforts. As Similarweb is increasingly recognized by media and analysts as the best source of comprehensive data on activity within the digital world, our earned media coverage has risen significantly. In 2023, Similarweb Digital Data was featured in over 70,000 print and digital articles, including dozens of features in leading publications such as the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Financial Times, driving significant brand awareness in our target markets.
Our Competition

As the world shifts to digital we are disrupting manual legacy approaches to making decisions with web and mobile data, with our cloud-based digital data and analytics platform. The approaches we are disrupting include market research companies such as Gfk Group and Kantar Group, traditional media measurement solutions such as Nielsen Corporation and Comscore, Inc., project-based approaches to specific business challenges provided by management consulting companies (e.g. McKinsey & Company, Bain & Company and Accenture plc) and marketing and media buying advertising agencies (e.g. WPP plc, Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group).

While we do not believe there are companies that offer the breadth and depth of digital data and analytics we offer, there are companies addressing narrow market segments such as digital marketing (e.g. SEMrush), or mobile application data (e.g. Data.ai).

We believe we compete favorably, and customers select us based on a number of factors, including:
market vision and pace of product innovation;
ability to deliver reliable, timely analytics;
breadth and depth of digital data across the web and mobile continuum;
ease of use;
digital market expertise;
adaptability to a broad range of use cases;
brand awareness and reputation;
scalability and availability;
pricing and total cost of ownership;
security and data privacy; and
quality of customer support.
73



Our Research and Development Operations
Since our founding, we have invested significantly in building a best-in-class tech platform that creates and delivers Similarweb Digital Data. Leveraging a team of PhDs, data scientists and big data engineers, we have built a proprietary foundation upon which our platform operates.
Our technology platform is predicated on:
Innovation. We foster an innovative, fast-paced engineering culture, since we began operating. We have consistently developed and delivered cutting-edge capabilities for our users. Our team of PhDs, data scientists and big data engineers first focused on disrupting competitive intelligence across desktop, then added cross-platform capabilities across mobile web and apps, and has since evolved the platform so it integrates into user workflows, with use case-specific products. We release products quickly and constantly refine and improve upon our leading platform.
Scalability. Our data is load-balanced across two Amazon Web Services regions, and each instance is able to auto-scale to accommodate the full usage of our platform at any time. This processing power allows us to analyze the billions of digital signals that come through our platform daily and analyze them to provide real-time insights to our users.
Reliability. We fully synchronize data across all regions and employ automatic failover and recovery to ensure that users do not lose their data. As a result, we have had no material downtime in the past three years.
Security. We have a dedicated data security team that employs the leading data security solutions and technologies to keep our operation and digital assets secured at the highest standards. We encrypt all traffic and use authentication services to keep our platform secure. In addition to our first-party platform, Similarweb’s API integrates with customers’ existing workflows so that they can build their own custom outputs and analyses using our data.
Our Commitment to Privacy
We take pride in our dedication to data privacy compliance. Our data collection strategy and practice is built on the fundamental principle of collecting information about use – not users. We are guided in all of our activities by the doctrine of “privacy by design” – we strive to avoid or minimize the collection of personal data, and to collect only the minimal data needed for the development and maintenance of our solutions and the operation of our business. We devote substantial efforts and resources to ensure the data we collect and how we use and share it is compliant with GDPR, CPRA and other privacy laws and regulations.
Multi-step verification process is employed to ensure data collected and used does not contain any personally identifiable information, or PII, or that any PII collected is collected and processed in accordance with applicable privacy laws.
Anonymous and/or de-identified behavioral data is aggregated and analyzed at the site- and app-level.
We never use the data we collect to power our solutions for individual ad retargeting.
Our Intellectual Property
Our intellectual property and our rights to use and protect it are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret and patent laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third parties, and other contractual protections, to protect our intellectual property rights, including our proprietary technology, algorithms, digital insight data, software, know-how and brand. We utilize open source products in various parts of our software and applications in accordance with the respective licenses of those products.
74


Generally, we do not use patents to protect our intellectual property. As of December 31, 2023, we owned four registered patents and had two pending patent applications: we acquired one patent in the United States and one in Finland from a third party in 2015; and in 2021, we acquired from another third party two patents in the United States and two patent applications in additional jurisdictions, which are pending as of December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, we owned two registered trademarks in the United States and had three trademark applications pending as of such date in the United States; and we owned 27 trademark applications and registered trademarks in various additional jurisdictions.
Although we rely on intellectual property rights, including copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our proprietary rights, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, creation of new services, features and functionality, and frequent enhancements to our platform are more essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.
We control access to and use of our proprietary technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners. We require our employees, consultants and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements and we control and monitor access to our software, documentation, proprietary digital insights data, proprietary technology and other confidential information. Our policy is to require all employees and independent contractors to sign agreements assigning to us any inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments, processes and other intellectual property generated by them on our behalf and under which they agree to protect our confidential information. In addition, we generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our customers and partners. For additional information about the risks relating to our intellectual property, see the Item 3.D “Risk factors—Risks relating to our intellectual property and technology.”


C.Organizational Structure

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure as of the date of this Annual Report. All ownership is 100%.
Updated scorporate structure.jpg


75


D.Property, Plants and Equipment
Our current headquarters is located in Givatayim, Israel, where we lease approximately 141,000 square feet, which lease is set to expire in April 2032. We have other offices including New York, Burlington, London, Paris, Tokyo and Singapore. These offices are leased, and we do not own any real property. We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our current needs.

Item 4A.  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
You should read the following discussion together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance, planned investments in our expansion into additional geographies, research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative functions as well as other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in Item 3.D entitled “Risk factors” and “Special note regarding forward-looking statements” and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes in “Item 18. Financial Statements”, included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
The following section generally discusses our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 can be found in Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Overview
Similarweb is a leader in digital data and analytics powering critical business decisions. We uncover what is happening online and provide every business with the best digital data & analytics to build strategy, optimize customer acquisition and maximize monetization.

At our core, we are a data business. Similarweb Digital Data is both our core product and our fundamental unit of value. To create our proprietary data asset, we collect billions of unprocessed web and mobile data points on companies and products, which include a variety of digital performance indicators on web and mobile, such as traffic and engagement, audience, search, display, content, referrals, and purchasing data points. Our data scientists and engineers transform the unrefined data into the corpus of Similarweb Digital Data using machine learning and artificial intelligence. Our unique approach to digital data acquisition and transformation involves a proprietary mix of data sources and complex data science, operating continuously at scale. We deliver Similarweb Digital Data to our customers via the methods they choose to purchase primarily on a subscription basis. Our customers then use Similarweb Digital Data to power critical decisions for running their businesses.
Today, businesses have access to unprecedented amounts of digital data that they can utilize for decision making. However, the data generally available to them only relates to the performance of their digital properties, such as websites, apps and social media channels that they own. Businesses have almost no visibility into the broader behaviors of consumers, or the digital performance of competitors, partners and other players. As a result, companies frequently operate with a lack of external visibility, impairing their ability to execute on everything from corporate strategy to day-to-day operations. Similarweb eliminates this lack of visibility. Similarweb Digital Data unlocks the digital world by giving organizations the keys to understand and gain insight from all relevant digital activity, and powers critical business decisions that create significant competitive advantages.
76


Our methods of delivering Similarweb Digital Data consists of three models: SaaS, DaaS, and Advisory Services. Starting with SaaS, we organize our SaaS approach by solutions to business challenges, which include market research, digital marketing, sales lead enrichment, ecommerce analytics, and alternative data for investors. Businesses utilize our SaaS solutions to enhance the capabilities of their professionals - from business leaders, strategy teams, analysts, marketers, category managers, to salespeople - to quickly and efficiently discover their best growth opportunities, identify potential competitive threats and make critical decisions to acquire customers and grow revenue. Our DaaS solutions provides enterprises and strategic accounts with direct integration of data feeds via API or other means for deployment of Similarweb Digital Data within their organizations through their own internal interfaces. We provide advisory services to businesses that seek embedded assistance with business challenges for which we have not yet productized a solution, or extensively customized data and analytics to accomplish their objectives using Similarweb Digital Data. Our advisory services clients often purchase Similarweb Digital Data through our SaaS and DaaS offerings as well.
We generate recurring revenue primarily from our SaaS subscriptions, which consists of subscription fees from customers utilizing our cloud-based digital data and analytics solutions, and secondarily from our DaaS offering through our API and other direct access to Similarweb Digital Data, all of which include routine customer support. Our SaaS, DaaS and Advisory Services offerings are generally sold on an annual subscription basis.
Paid SaaS subscriptions to our platform powered by Similarweb Digital Data are available in five categories of solutions:
Digital Research Intelligence. Provides web traffic research insights, which help companies research markets, companies, and audiences, as well as benchmark their performance against other companies.
Digital Marketing Intelligence. Provides competitive analysis, keyword optimization, affiliate optimization and advertising and media optimization.
Sales Intelligence. Provides insights to drive sales acceleration through lead generation, lead enrichment, sales engagement and fraud detection.
Shopper Intelligence. Provides insights to analyze and optimize the purchase funnel and acquisition strategy, monitor consumer demand and leverage on-site search volume and conversion.
Investor Intelligence. Provides data-driven investing insights for hedge funds, asset managers, banks, venture capital and private equity firms.
We sell subscriptions to these SaaS solutions with pricing tiers based on feature set, geographic coverage and the number of users who have access to them. Our subscription agreements typically last for a minimum term of one year and are renewable thereafter. We typically invoice customers in advance for annual increments. As of December 31, 2023, 42% of our Annual Recurring Revenue, or ARR, is generated from customer contracts with multi-year terms, compared to 39% as of December 31, 2022.
We deploy a highly efficient approach to sales and marketing in order to grow our business. Our sales and marketing teams collaborate to create brand awareness and demand, build a robust sales pipeline and ensure customer success, driving revenue growth. We believe that our sales and marketing model provides us with a competitive advantage because we attract and engage new businesses efficiently and at scale, and we have established a successful upsell motion to grow existing customer accounts.

Our efficient sales organization includes a global sales force, technical, and data experts, and support staff, operating through both an inbound and outbound sales motion. The inbound sales motion accounts for approximately three quarters of our new sales opportunities, where prospective customers display initial interest in our platform by visiting or contacting us through our website. These cost-effective leads are efficiently converted to pipeline opportunities for our sales teams to pursue. We complement this inbound motion with an outbound motion focused on developing sales opportunities with larger targeted accounts, where our sales representatives engage organizations based on a geographic coverage model. In general, large enterprises are covered by our field sales
77


team, and smaller organizations by our inside sales team. We have a team of account managers focused on expanding and retaining our existing customer relationships by helping our customers optimize the value they derive through their usage of our platform and solutions. We continually engage with our customers through support services and proactive account management team check-ins, and often upsell customers to new solutions as they see the value in the platform and want to add additional feature functionality, geographic coverage, users and digital data and analytics solutions.
To drive sales, we leverage free offerings that attract and engage prospects’ interest and feature our platform capabilities. Through our website, and through a popular browser extension which we own, we provide free access to a wide range of basic services that provide users with a subset of our robust insights and analytics as well as the opportunity to explore the value they could achieve from our paid offerings. Our free offerings deliver rankings and ratings of websites and apps as of a recent date and act as an entry point for many users who often upgrade to paid subscriptions. In 2023, we attracted over 120 million users with these free offerings, resulting in hundreds of thousands of sales leads. While functional and relevant to a broad swath of businesses, our free offerings offer significantly less functionality than our paid solutions, which address specific use cases with robust insights and time series data, with granular details around web traffic, behavior and user journey that can drive business decisions and success. We believe this tiered approach creates champions within organizations who see the value of our solutions, build trust in and connection with our brand, and spread the word organically.
We sell to companies across a wide range of industries such as technology, financial services, retail, household products, apparel and institutional investors. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, no single customer generated more than 5% of our revenue. As of December 31, 2023 we had 4,712 customers. Once a customer starts to realize the value of our Similarweb Digital Data by deploying one of our solutions in their business, they often significantly increase their usage.
Our business has grown rapidly and is transitioning to value innovation, which is the simultaneous pursuit of growth and profitability. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we grew our revenue by 40% compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 and 13% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. Additionally, we have $87.6 million and $81.8 million in cash, cash equivalents and restricted deposits as of December 31, 2022 and 2023, respectively. We generated revenue of $137.7 million, $193.2 million and $218.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. We had negative operating cash flow of $27.6 million, $46.1 million and $3.0 million and had negative free cash flow of $30.4 million, $77.2 million and $5.4 million in years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. See the section titled “—Non-GAAP financial measures—Free cash flow” for additional information regarding free cash flow, a measure that is not calculated under GAAP. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, our net loss was $69.0 million, $83.7 million and $29.4 million, respectively.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Acquire new customers
We believe there is substantial opportunity to continue to grow our customer base. We had 4,712 customers as of December 31, 2023, increasing from 4,049 as of December 31, 2022. We plan to continue our investment in sales and marketing in order to drive new customer acquisition. We intend to grow our base of both inside and field sales representatives, which we believe will drive both geographic and vertical expansion. We believe there is a significant opportunity to expand usage of our platform in the geographies in which we operate. We have made and plan to continue to make investments to expand our global operations across North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, including in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and Singapore. We are also investing in self-serve offerings and distribution channels. Our ability to attract new customers will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness and pricing of our solutions, offerings of our competitors, and the effectiveness of our marketing efforts.
78


We define a customer as a separate legal entity that has an active annual or multi-year subscription with us in the period indicated. A single organization with multiple divisions, segments or subsidiaries is generally counted as a single customer. Users of our free offerings and users who subscribe to our offerings for less than an annual subscription term are not included in our customer count.
Expansion from existing customers
Our large base of customers represents a significant opportunity for further sales expansion. Once a customer has purchased a subscription from us, we have historically experienced significant expansion with them over time as they add additional features, geographic coverage, users and digital intelligence solutions. We look at the increase in spend from our customers as an indication of the value we provide them over time. As an example, as of December 31, 2023, 365 of our customers generated ARR of $100,000 or more, up from 337 and 187 customers as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, most of whom began initially as smaller customers. The chart below illustrates the percentage of ARR by customer segments broken out by customers who generated ARR of $100,000 or more, between $25,000 and $100,000 and those who generated under $25,000 in ARR. As of December 31, 2023, customers who generated more than $100,000 in ARR represented 57% of our total ARR, as compared to 43% of our total ARR as of December 31, 2019. We define ARR as the annualized subscription revenue we would contractually expect to receive from customers assuming no increases or reductions in their subscriptions.
Screenshot 2024-01-16 104617.jpg
A further indication of the propensity of our customer relationships to expand over time is our net dollar-based retention rate, or NRR, which compares our ARR from the same set of customers as of a certain point in time, relative to the same point in time in the previous year ago period. We calculate our NRR as of a period end by starting with the ARR from the cohort of all customers as of 12 months prior to such period-end, or the Prior Period ARR. We then calculate the ARR from these same customers as of the current period-end, or the Current Period ARR. Current Period ARR includes any expansion and is net of contraction or attrition over the last 12 months, but excludes ARR from new customers in the current period. We then divide the Current Period ARR by the Prior Period ARR to arrive at the point-in-time NRR. We then calculate the average of the trailing four quarter point-in-time NRR to arrive at the NRR. The chart below illustrates the changes to our NRR over the last five fiscal quarters.

79


NRR.jpg
We intend to grow our base of account managers to continue to drive adoption and expansion of additional use cases within our customer base. Our ability to increase sales to existing customers will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our Similarweb Digital Data, solutions, competition, pricing and overall changes in our customers’ spending levels.
Continued innovation and technology leadership
Our success is dependent on our ability to sustain innovation and technology leadership in order to maintain our competitive advantage. We believe that we have built highly differentiated data and solutions on a platform that will position us to further expand adoption. We intend to continue to invest in expanding our product and engineering staff to innovate and develop additional data and solutions that increase our capabilities and facilitate the extension of our platform to new use cases. Our future success is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, market and sell existing and new Similarweb Digital Data and solutions to both new and existing customers.
Continued pursuit of growth and profitability
We believe that we have a significant market opportunity ahead of us. We seek to grow revenue by offering a unique value proposition powered by Similarweb Digital Data and to pursue operating profit. We intend to continue to invest to support the organic growth and expansion of our business, to increase revenue, and to scale our operations to support our trajectory. Further, we expect to operate effectively and efficiently and to manage our sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses with a view towards achieving profitability and sustained free cash flow generation. We expect that our cost of revenue and operating expenses will fluctuate over time. We also intend to continue to evaluate strategic acquisitions and investments in businesses and technologies to drive solution and market expansion.
Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate revenue primarily from SaaS subscriptions, which is comprised of subscription fees from customers utilizing our cloud-based digital intelligence solutions and other subscription-based solutions, such as API, all of which include routine customer support. Our subscription contracts typically have a term of 12 months
80


and are generally non-cancellable. Customers enter into subscription contracts to gain access to one or more of our subscription-based solutions. Subscription revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the contractual term of the subscription beginning on the date that our services are made available to the customer assuming that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Payments received in advance of services being rendered are recorded as deferred revenue in our consolidated balance sheets.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue primarily consists of costs related to supporting our cloud-based platform and solutions. These costs include personnel related costs, such as salaries, bonuses and benefits, and share-based compensation, which we collectively refer to as personnel related costs, for employees principally responsible for data acquisition, production engineering, advisory and technical customer support. In addition to these expenses, we incur third-party service provider costs such as payments to our third-party cloud infrastructure provider for hosting our platform, third-party data providers and amortization of internal use software and intangible assets. We also incur costs related to payments made with respect to our metered panel following our acquisition of Embee Mobile, Inc. We allocate overhead costs such as rent, utilities, depreciation and supplies to all departments based on relative headcount. As such, general overhead expenses are reflected in the cost of revenue in addition to each operating expense category. In recent years, we have experienced significant cost of revenue leverage of our data acquisition costs, which has enabled gross margin expansion. We will continue to invest additional resources in our cloud infrastructure and our data acquisition and customer support organizations to expand the capabilities of our solutions. The level and timing of investment in these areas could affect our cost of revenue in the future.
Gross profit and gross margin
Gross profit is revenue less cost of revenue, and gross margin is gross profit as a percentage of revenue. Gross profit has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including the average sales price of our solutions, volume growth and our ability to leverage our investment in data costs to more customers.
Operating expenses
Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses. Personnel-related costs are the most significant component of operating expenses and consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, share-based compensation and sales commissions. Operating expenses also include allocated overhead costs.
Research and development
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel related costs for our engineering, data science, product and design teams. Additional expenses include consulting and professional fees for third-party development resources and third-party licenses for software development tools. We expect that we will continue to dedicate substantial resources to develop, improve and expand our Similarweb Digital Data and solutions. We anticipate that research and development expenses will decrease as a percentage of revenue over time, as we expect to realize operating leverage in our business.
Sales and marketing
Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel related costs for our marketing, sales, account management. Additional expenses include marketing program costs. We expect we will continue to invest in sales and marketing activities to support our growth such as in our inside and field sales and account management teams. We anticipate that sales and marketing expenses will decrease as a percentage of revenue over time.


81


General and administrative
Our general and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel related costs for our executive, finance, human resources, information technology and legal functions. We anticipate general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue to decrease over time, as we expect to realize operating leverage in our business.
Finance income (expense)
Finance income (expense) consists of interest expense accrued on our indebtedness, net of interest income earned on our cash balances. Finance income (expense) also includes gains and losses incurred from non-designated hedge transactions as well as the impact of currency exchange rate fluctuations resulting from our global operations and the revaluation of our balance sheet assets and liabilities that are denominated in foreign currencies. We expect finance income (expense) to vary each reporting period depending on the amount of outstanding indebtedness, non-designated hedging transactions, currency exchange rate fluctuations and prevailing interest rates.
We expect interest income will vary in each reporting period depending on our average cash balances during the period and applicable interest rates.
Provision for income taxes
We are subject to taxes in Israel, the United States as well as other tax jurisdictions or countries in which we conduct business. Earnings from our non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of our assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax reporting purposes in each jurisdiction. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, in assessing the extent to which a valuation allowance should be applied against our net deferred tax assets. Realization of our net deferred tax assets depends upon future earnings, the timing and amount of which are uncertain and, as a result, and due to our history of cumulative losses, we maintain a full valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets in Israel and certain other jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate is affected by tax rates in Israel, the United States and foreign jurisdictions and the relative amounts of income we earn in those jurisdictions, as well as non-deductible expenses, such as share-based compensation, and changes in our valuation allowance.


A.Operating Results
The following tables summarize key components of our results of operations data and such data as a percentage of total revenue for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparisons of our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future.








82


Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023:


Year Ended December 31,

2022

2023

Revenue$193,234 


$218,019 

Cost of revenue (1)53,274 


47,090 

Gross profit139,960 


170,929 

Operating expenses:



Research and development (1)59,904 


56,158 

Sales and marketing (1)122,635 


101,198 

General and administrative (1)45,227 


42,380 

Total operating expenses227,816 


199,736 

Loss from operations(87,856)


(28,807)

Other income, net290 — 
Finance income, net4,421 


941 

Loss before income taxes(83,145)


(27,866)

Provision for income taxes516 


1,507 

Net loss$(83,661)


$(29,373)

(1) Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:

Year Ended 
December 31,

2022

2023

(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$599 

$635 
Research and development5,287

5,782
Sales and marketing5,995

5,196
General and administrative5,106

$6,514 
Total share-based compensation expense$16,987 

$18,127 
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the period indicated:

83



Year Ended December 31,

2022

2023

Revenue100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of revenue27.6 21.6 
Gross profit72.4 78.4 
Operating expenses:
Research and development31.0 25.8 
Sales and marketing63.5 46.4 
General and administrative23.4 19.4 
Total operating expenses117.9 91.6 
Loss from operations(45.5)(13.2)
Other income, net0.2 — 
Finance income, net2.3 0.4 
Loss before income taxes(43.0)(12.8)
Provision for income taxes0.3 0.7 
Net loss(43.3)%(13.5)%
Revenue
















Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change

20222023
$ Change
% Change

(in thousands)
Revenue$193,234 $218,019 $24,785 12.8 %





Total revenue increased by $24.8 million, or 12.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to an increase in our subscription revenue. $12.6 million of that increase was generated from customers in the United States, which increased by 13.9% from $90.9 million in 2022 to $103.5 million in 2023, and an additional $6.1 million of the increase in total revenue was generated from customers in Europe and the United Kingdom, which increased 10.6% from $57.4 million in 2022 to $63.5 million in 2023. We increased the number of paying customers by 16.4% from 4,049 as of December 31, 2022 to 4,712 as of December 31, 2023. The number of customers in the United States increased from 1,275 as of December 31, 2022 to 1,351 as of December 31, 2023. The number of customers in Europe and the United Kingdom increased from 1,339 as of December 31, 2022 to 1,458 as of December 31, 2023.
Costs of revenue
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20222023$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$53,274 $47,090 $(6,184)(11.6)%

84


Total cost of revenue decreased by $6.2 million, or 11.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. Our cost of revenue deceased primarily due to a decrease of $4.1 million in compensation primarily related to decrease in employee headcount as well as bonuses primarily related to a business combination in 2022, a decrease of $2.2 million related to third-party data providers, and a decrease of $0.6 million related to our third-party hosting services, partially offset by an increase of $0.7 million related to amortization of intangible assets acquired in business combinations. Our gross margin increased from 72.4% in 2022 to 78.4% in 2023, primarily reflecting our focus on operating efficiency and cost optimization efforts.
Operating expenses
Research and development
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20222023$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Research and development$59,904 $56,158 $(3,746)(6.3)%
Research and development expenses decreased by $3.7 million, or 6.3%, to $56.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $59.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of $6.0 million in compensation primarily related to a decrease in employee headcount and a decrease of $0.5 million related to product development infrastructure and tools, partially offset by a $2.1 million reduction in capitalized internal-use software costs and an increase of $0.5 million in share-based compensation.
Sales and marketing
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20222023$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Sales and marketing$122,635 $101,198 $(21,437)(17.5)%
Sales and marketing expenses decreased by $21.4 million, or 17.5%, to $101.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $122.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of $14.3 million in compensation primarily related to a decrease in employee headcount, a decrease of $2.2 million in marketing expenditures primarily in paid acquisition campaigns, and a decrease of $0.8 million in share-based compensation,
General and administrative

Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20222023$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
General and administrative$45,277 $42,380 $(2,897)(6.4)%
85


General and administrative expenses decreased by $2.9 million, or 6.4%, to $42.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $45.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of $3.7 million in compensation primarily related to a decrease in employee headcount, partially offset by an increase of $1.4 million in share-based compensation.
Finance expenses, net
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20222023$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Finance income, net$4,421 $941 $(3,480)(78.7)%
Finance income, net decreased by $3.5 million, or 78.7%, to $0.9 million of finance income for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change was primarily due to a $4.5 million impact from foreign exchange due to the appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the New Israeli Shekel and other currencies in 2022, partially offset by a $0.4 million impact of gains on hedging activities.

Provision for income taxes

Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20222023$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Provision for income taxes$516 $1,507 $991 192.1 %
Provision for income taxes increased to $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, reflecting an effective tax rate of (5)% and (1)% for each of the years, respectively.

Non-GAAP financial measures
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe that non-GAAP operating loss and free cash flow, which are non-GAAP financial measures, are useful in evaluating the performance of our business.
Non-GAAP operating loss
Non-GAAP operating loss is a supplemental measure of operating performance that is not prepared in accordance with GAAP and that does not represent, and should not be considered as, an alternative to operating loss, as determined in accordance with GAAP. We define non-GAAP operating loss as operating loss, adjusted for share-based compensation, retention payments related to business combinations, amortization of intangible assets, non-recurring expenses in relation to our initial public offering and certain other non-recurring items.
86


We use non-GAAP operating loss to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends, to prepare and approve our annual budget, and to develop short-term and long-term operating plans. We believe that non-GAAP operating loss facilitates comparison of our operating performance on a consistent basis between periods, and when viewed in combination with our results prepared in accordance with GAAP, helps provide a broader picture of factors and trends affecting our results of operations.
Non-GAAP operating loss has limitations as an analytical tool, and should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Our definition of Non-GAAP operating loss may differ from the definitions used by other companies and therefore comparability may be limited. Because of these limitations, non-GAAP operating loss should not be considered as a replacement for operating loss, as determined by GAAP, or as a measure of our profitability. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using non-GAAP measures only for supplemental purposes.

A reconciliation of non-GAAP operating loss to GAAP operating loss, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, is as follows:

Year Ended December 31,
20222023
(in thousands)
Loss from operations$(87,856)$(28,807)
Add:
Share-based compensation expenses16,987 18,127 
Retention payments related to business combinations2,342 1,072 
Amortization of intangible assets related to business combinations4,573 4,776 
Adjustment of fair value of contingent consideration related to business combinations(884)— 
Non-recurring expenses related to termination of lease agreements and others1,174 17 
Capital gain on sale of operating equipment(127)— 
Non-GAAP operating loss$(63,791)$(4,815)
Free cash flow
Free cash flow represents net cash used in or provided by operating activities, reduced by capital expenditures and capitalized software development costs, if any. Free cash flow is a measure used by management to understand and evaluate our liquidity and to generate future operating plans. The reduction of capital expenditures and amounts capitalized for software development. facilitates comparisons of our liquidity on a period-to-period basis and includes items that we consider to be indicative of our liquidity on an operating basis. We believe that free cash flow is a measure of liquidity that provides useful information to our management, investors and others in understanding and evaluating the strength of our liquidity and future ability to generate cash that can be used for strategic opportunities or investing in our business in the same manner as our management and board of directors. Nevertheless, our use of free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our financial results as reported under GAAP. Further, our definition of free cash flow may differ from the definitions used by other companies and therefore comparability may be limited. You should consider free cash flow alongside our other GAAP-based financial performance measures, such as net cash used in or provided by operating activities, and our other GAAP financial results.
87


The following table presents a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash used in operating activities, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with GAAP:
Year ended December 31,
20222023
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(46,065)$(3,038)
Purchases of property and equipment, net(28,257)(1,559)
Capitalized internal use software costs(2,919)(821)
Free cash flow(77,241)(5,418)

B.Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through cash payments from our customers, equity issuances and borrowings under our credit facilities. Our primary requirements for liquidity and capital are to finance working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes. Our principal sources of liquidity are our cash and borrowings available under the credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, or the SVB Credit Facility.
We believe that our net cash provided by operating activities, cash on hand and availability under our SVB Credit Facility (as assumed by the Bridge Bank, as defined and discussed below) will be adequate to meet our operating, investing and financing needs for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our revenue growth, the timing and extent of investments to support such growth, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, increases in general and administrative costs and many other factors as described under “Risk factors” and “—Key factors affecting our performance.”
Credit facilities
Credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank
On December 30, 2020, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement, or the SVB LSA, with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, which was amended by a Loan Modification Agreement, dated as of November 13, 2022. The credit facility has an available borrowing capacity of (a) the lesser of (i) $75 million or (ii) the amount available under the borrowing base, minus (b) the outstanding principal balance of any advances made under the credit facility. The borrowing base is the product of (a) monthly recurring revenue, as defined in the LSA, multiplied by (b) an advance rate as set forth in the LSA.
Under the SVB LSA, which is currently in effect through December 30, 2024, we paid an initial administrative fee of $262,500 and a one-year anniversary fee of $262,500, and we pay an unused facility fee in an amount equal to 0.3% per annum of the average unused portion of the credit facility (if applicable). However, there are no additional fees or penalties payable by us in the event we elect to repay the principal amount outstanding under the SVB LSA prior to its maturity date.
Subject to certain exceptions, borrowings under the SVB LSA accrue interest at a rate equal to the greater of (i) a floating per annum rate equal to 0.25% above the prime rate or (ii) a fixed per annum rate equal to 3.50%, also paid on a monthly basis.
88


The SVB LSA is subject to certain financial covenants, including that we maintain liquidity of at least $35 million. Liquidity for this purpose is the sum of (i) the aggregate amount of our unrestricted and unencumbered cash and cash equivalents and (b) the Availability Amount (as such term is defined in the SVB LSA).
The SVB LSA is secured by substantially all of our assets. It also contains various affirmative and negative covenants, including financial reporting requirements and limitations on indebtedness, liens, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, sales of assets, dividends and other restricted payments, investments (including acquisitions) and transactions with affiliates. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all of our financial covenants under the SVB LSA.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $25.0 million outstanding under the SVB LSA.
On March 10, 2023, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation shut down SVB, and the FDIC was appointed as receiver of SVB. On March 12, 2023, the Department of the Treasury, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the FDIC issued a joint statement noting that, among other things, the FDIC was approved to take action to complete its resolution of SVB in a manner that fully protected all depositors. The joint statement made clear that depositors would have full access to all cash balances on deposit with SVB on March 13, 2023. To effectuate this, the FDIC transferred all the deposits, both insured and uninsured, of SVB to Silicon Valley Bridge Bank, N.A. a bridge bank that will be operated by the FDIC as it markets the institution to potential bidders (the “Bridge Bank”). On March 14, 2023, the Bridge Bank published a notice that stated that it had fully stepped into the shoes of SVB and that all commitments to advance under existing credit agreements will be honored in accordance with and pursuant to the terms thereof. All obligations of the Bridge Bank are backed by the FDIC and the full faith and credit of the US government. Therefore, we do not believe that the closure of SVB has had a material adverse effect on our deposits, credit facility, business or overall financial condition.

Cash flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:

Year ended December 31,

20222023
Net cash used in operating activities$(46,065)

$(3,038)
Net cash used in investing activities(33,009)

(2,586)
Net cash provided by financing activities29,117 

1,192 
Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents(1,112)

(1,646)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(51,069)

(6,078)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period128,879 

77,810 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$77,810 

$71,732 

Operating activities
Our largest source of operating cash is cash collected from sales of subscriptions to our customers. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are for personnel expenses, marketing expenses, hosting expenses, data acquisition expenses and allocated overhead expenses. In periods in which we generated negative operating
89


cash flows, we have supplemented working capital requirements through net proceeds from the sale of equity securities and borrowings under our credit facilities.
Net cash flows used in operating activities decreased to $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $46.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to a $54.3 million decrease in incremental net loss, partially offset by the aggregate changes in the balance sheet, particularly in deferred revenue.
Investing activities
Net cash used in investing activities decreased to $2.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $33.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to a $28.8 million decrease in capital expenditures, primarily related to our move to our new headquarters in Israel in 2022.
Financing activities
Net cash flows provided by financing activities decreased to $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $29.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to the draw of $25.0 million from our credit facility in 2022.

Contractual obligations and commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2023:

Payments Due by Period
TotalLess than 1
Year
1-3 Years3-5 YearsMore than
5 Years
(in thousands)
Purchase obligations50,516 25,280 25,236 — — 
Operating lease commitments48,803 7,099 12,121 11,144 18,439 
Total99,319 32,379 37,357 11,144 18,439 
The commitment amounts in the table above are associated with contracts that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used, fixed, minimum or variable price provisions, and the approximate timing of the actions under the contracts. The table does not include obligations under agreements that we can cancel without a significant penalty.

Purchase obligations
We contract with various service providers for systems and services to perform certain day-to-day activities of our business. The use of these service providers allows us to provide consistent services and products across our platform and meet other business objectives. Our contracts with these service providers may be structured in a manner where the services are provided on a continuous basis for a set fee. Other engagements are established with a defined period for the contract.
Operating leases
We lease offices in various locations in which we conduct our business. These lease agreements are typically for a term of one year or greater. The aggregate future financial obligations under these lease agreements are reflected above as operating lease commitments.
Our current principal offices consist of a facility of 141,000 square feet located in Givatayim, Israel.

90


C.Research and Development, Patents and Licenses
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel related costs for our engineering, data science, product and design teams. Additional expenses include consulting and professional fees for third-party development resources and third-party licenses for software development tools. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we continue to dedicate substantial resources to develop, improve and expand our Similarweb Digital Data and solutions. We also anticipate that research and development expenses will decrease as a percentage of revenue, as we expect to realize operating leverage in our business.
Since our founding, we have invested significantly in building a best-in-class tech platform. Leveraging a team of PhDs, data scientists and big data engineers, we have built a proprietary foundation upon which our platform operates.
Our technology platform is predicated on:
Innovation. We foster an innovative, fast-paced engineering culture, since our founding over 10 years ago. We have consistently developed and delivered cutting-edge capabilities for our users. Our team of PhDs, data scientists and big data engineers first focused on disrupting competitive intelligence across desktop, then added cross-platform capabilities across mobile web and apps, and has since evolved the platform so it integrates into user workflows, with use case-specific products. We release products quickly and constantly refine and improve upon our leading platform.

Scalability. Our data is load-balanced across two Amazon Web Services regions, and each instance is able to auto-scale to accommodate the full usage of our platform at any time. This processing power allows us to analyze the billions of digital signals that come through our platform daily and analyze them to provide real-time insights to our users.

Reliability. We fully synchronize data across all regions and employ automatic failover and recovery to ensure that users do not lose their data.

Security. We have a dedicated data security team that employs the leading data security solutions and technologies to keep our operation and digital assets secured at the highest standards. We encrypt all traffic and use authentication services to keep our platform secure. In addition to our first-party platform, Similarweb’s API integrates with customers’ existing workflows so that they can build their own custom outputs and analyses using our data.

D.Trend Information
Other than as disclosed elsewhere in this Annual Report, we are not aware of any trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments or events for the period from January 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023 that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our revenue, profitability, liquidity or capital resources, or that caused the disclosed financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or financial condition.

E.Critical Accounting Estimates
We have provided a summary of our significant accounting policies, estimates and judgments in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The following critical accounting discussion pertains to accounting policies management believes are most critical to the portrayal of our historical financial condition and results of operations and that require significant, difficult, subjective or complex judgments. Other companies in similar businesses may use different estimation policies and methodologies, which may impact the comparability of our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows to those of other companies.
91


Our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of consolidated financial statements also requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses, and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ significantly from the estimates made by management. To the extent that there are differences between our estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows will be affected.
We believe that the accounting policies described below involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Revenue recognition
We generate revenue primarily from SaaS subscriptions, which is comprised of subscription fees from customers utilizing our cloud based digital intelligence solutions and other subscription based solutions, such as API access, all of which include routine customer support. We sell our products directly to our customers utilizing our website, direct sales force and distribution partners.
Subscription service arrangements are generally non-cancelable and do not provide for refunds to customers in the event of cancellations or any other right of return. We record revenue net of sales or excise taxes.
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606, and determine revenue recognition through the following steps:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
Determination of the transaction price;
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Recognition of revenue when, or as, the performance obligations are satisfied.
Subscription revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the contractual subscription term of the arrangement beginning on the date that our service is made available to the customer, assuming that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Payments received in advance of services being rendered are recorded as deferred revenue in our consolidated balance sheets.
We typically invoice customers in advance for annual increments. Unbilled accounts receivable represents revenue recognized on contracts for which billings have not yet been presented to customers because the amounts were earned but not contractually billable as of the balance sheet date. The unbilled accounts receivable balance is due within one year.
Deferred contract costs
We account for costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts in accordance with ASC Topic 340-40, Other assets and deferred costs, or ASC 340.
Sales commissions earned by our sales force are considered incremental and recoverable costs of acquiring customer contracts. These costs are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the anticipated period of benefit, which is estimated to be three years. We determined the period of benefit by taking into consideration the length of its customer contracts and its technology lifecycle. Amounts expected to be recognized in excess of one year of the balance sheet date are recorded as deferred contract costs, non-current, in the consolidated balance sheets. Deferred contract costs are periodically analyzed for impairment. Amortization expense is recorded in sales
92


and marketing expense within the accompanying consolidated statement of operations. We have elected to apply the practical expedient allowed by ASC 606 according to which incremental costs of obtaining a contract are recognized as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the asset is one year or less.
Share-based compensation
We account for share-based compensation in accordance with ASC Topic 718, “Compensation-Stock Compensation.” Share based awards are mainly granted to employees and members of our board of directors and measured at fair value at each grant date. We calculated the fair value of share options granted before the IPO on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of each restricted stock unit, or RSU, and performance stock unit, or PSU is based on the fair value of the underlying ordinary shares as of the grant date. The expense is recognized over the requisite service period using the straight-line method for RSUs and the graded vesting attribution method for PSUs. We recognize forfeitures as they occur. We calculate the fair value of our Employee Share Purchase Plan, or ESPP, on the date of grant using the Monte-Carlo simulation, and the expense is recognized over the requisite service period using a straight-line method.
Future expense amounts for any particular period could be affected by changes in our assumptions or market conditions.
Internal use software development costs
We capitalize certain development costs incurred in connection with the development of our platform and software used in operations. We also capitalize costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct and incremental, are capitalized until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred.
Capitalized internal-use software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. The weighted-average useful life of capitalized internal-use software is 3 years as of December 31, 2023. We evaluate the useful lives of these assets and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets.
We did not recognize any impairments to internal-use software during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023.